The Best Pre-Workouts for Women for Muscle Gain, Runners, and More

Discover which of these women’s pre-workouts can kick your workouts up a notch.

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Pre-workouts are notorious for containing an array of performance-enhancing ingredients like citrulline, caffeine, BCAAs, tyrosine, creatine, and many others that can target muscle growth, energy, and even recovery. With so many ingredients and so many products that target male customers, deciphering labels and finding the right ingredients to suit your needs, as a female, can be tedious. Do you want something that may include fat burning ingredients to help with weight loss, as well? Or are you just looking for your typical citrulline, caffeine, and tyrosine blend that can help with blood flow, energy, and focus?

No matter what you need in a pre-workout, it’s no secret that many of your run-of-the-mill pre-workouts are marketed more toward men, which may leave some women with questions like, “Will this product do the same things for me?” or “Should I take a different pre-workout with smaller dosages?” Most of the time actually, a lot of the ingredients and doses stay the same for males and females. However, sometimes women may look for a leaner blend, or a different set of vitamins within their pre-workout. We put together this list of pre-workouts that are specifically great for females to help you find your perfect pre-workout match. 

The Best Pre-Workout Supplements

Editor’s note: The content on BarBend is meant to be informative in nature, but it should not be taken as medical advice. The opinions and articles on this site are not intended for use as diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment of health problems. It’s always a good idea to talk to your doctor before beginning a new fitness, nutritional, and/or supplement routine. 

Best Pre-Workout for Women Overall

The thing we liked most about this formula is that there’s a mix of classic pre-workout ingredients, as well as some less common compounds that are starting to break through in the industry. 

Powher Pre-Workout

Powher Pre-Workout is a blend of the typical big-hitters — like taurine, citrulline, beta-alanine, and tyrosine — as well as some more unique ingredients. You’ll find only 100mg of caffeine, which adds a nice kick, but nothing too overwhelming. And one of the unique ingredients in Powher is RedNite, which is a powerful beet extract that can help with neuromuscular efficiency during strength training. (1) In addition, Powher includes 500mg of coconut water powder that can help with hydration during exercise. This blend comes in a Pink Lemonade flavor that we found to be a bit heavier on the raspberry taste, and very light on notes of citrus.

Powher
Powher
Powher

A relatively low caffeine pre-workout that's a good mixture of established, science-backed ingredients and newer, slightly experimental compounds that could help with performance.

Who Should Buy Powher Pre-Workout

  • Women who are looking for a more unique formula will like the RedNite in this blend that deviates from more typical pre-workout ingredients. 
  • Anyone who doesn’t want a ton of caffeine in their pre-workout. Powher only contains 100mg. 
  • Folks who are looking for an extra boost in hydration will like the coconut water powder here. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Powher Pre-Workout

  • Athletes looking for a bigger hit of caffeine to help with early morning workouts may want to look for a pre-workout with more than 100mg. 
  • People who don’t like raspberries may want to steer clear. Though the flavor here is Pink Lemonade, we found that it tasted more like raspberry. 
  • Those who want to stick to the pre-workout basics can find a more straightforward blend. 

If you’re looking for a pre-workout that provides solid doses of lots of classic pre-workout ingredients, as well as some more unique ones — like RedNite — Powher can be a great, well-rounded formula for you. 

Best Pre-Workout for Women (Runner Up)

Though this product is not specifically made for or marketed to women like some other products on this list, we still love it for its solid doses and all-natural ingredients. 

Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout

Legion Pulse contains six main ingredients — l-citrulline, beta-alanine, betaine anhydrous, 350mg of caffeine anhydrous, l-theanine, and Alpha-GPC (which may help with power output). What stands out about this list of ingredients is the high eight gram dose of citrulline and the 16 different flavors to choose from. The formula is well-rounded and can help boost your performance and endurance both while lifting weights and while HIIT training on an exercise bike. Plus, it’s naturally flavored and sweetened, so if you’re trying to steer clear of artificial ingredients, you can’t go wrong with Legion Pulse.

20% Off
Legion Pulse Preworkout
Legion Pulse Preworkout
Legion Pulse Preworkout

This pre-workout supplement can come with or without caffeine and in 16 different flavors. Each serving provides 350 milligrams of L-theanine and eight grams of citrulline, which may facilitate better pumps. 

Who Should Buy Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout

  • Women who want a pre-workout that contains all natural ingredients. 
  • Anyone who wants the choice to have caffeine in their pre-workout — this product allows you to order the same formula with or without caffeine.
  • People who are looking for a high dose of citrulline will like the eight grams here. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout

  • Those who want a pre-workout with an average dose of caffeine. While you can opt not to have caffeine in this blend, if you opt in, the dose is relatively high at 350mg.
  • This pre-workout doesn’t contain creatine, which some women may want to have in their formula. 

Legion offers an all-around solid formula that can help with energy, focus, and muscle pumps. Plus, you can decide if you want to order your blend with or without caffeine, and choose from 16 flavors at checkout. 

Best Women’s Pre-Workout for Weight Loss

First and foremost, in order to lose weight, you’ll want to focus on taking in fewer calories than you burn each day. After that, this pre-workout may be able to help you out just a little further. 

Disclaimer: Please note that none of these products describe themselves as weight loss supplements and should not be taken as such. Please consult with a medical professional before beginning any weight loss protocol.

Transparent Labs LEAN 

Transparent Labs LEAN contains some ingredients you may also see on fat burner labels. One of these is synephrine, which can help increase the number of calories burned throughout your day — and the hordenine in this product may also contribute to this cause. In addition, the iodine, zinc, selenium, and copper may boost thyroid health. On top of that, you’ll find many pillar pre-workout ingredients like citrulline, beta-alanine, and theanine. It’s worth noting that this supp does contain caffeine and theobromine though, both of which are stimulants. 

10% Off
Transparent Labs Lean
Transparent Labs Lean
Transparent Labs Lean

Third-party tested and clearly dosed, Transparent Labs LEAN has a huge variety of ingredients for endurance, power, alertness, and focus. Use code BARBEND10 for 10% off.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs LEAN

  • Women who are looking to burn more calories with the help of their pre-workout can supplement a calorie deficit with this blend. 
  • This product is free of artificial sweeteners and colors, which may appeal to some. 
  • If you’re looking for multiple flavors to choose from, this product comes in Green Apple, Sour Grape, Strawberry Lemonade, and Blue Raspberry. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Transparent Labs LEAN

  • You can find a higher dose of caffeine in other pre-workouts if that’s what you’re looking for. There’s only 180mg here.
  • Women who may be trying to bulk will want to look for a pre-workout that doesn’t contain synephrine or hordenine. 

Since many women may look for leaner supplement options, Transparent Labs leaned (pun intended) into this, and designed a product that can help increase thermogenesis (the number of calories you’re burning).

Best Tasting Pre-Workout for Women

If you’re looking for a lot of great-tasting flavors to choose from, we think all eight from Transparent Labs BULK are solid options.

Transparent Labs BULK

For those who want an unflavored powder, move right along. But for those who are looking for a wide flavor variety, Transparent Labs BULK offers eight delicious flavors — Lemon Lime, Watermelon, Sour Grape, Green Apple, Orange, Blue Raspberry, Strawberry Lemonade, and Tropical Punch.

On top of the flavor profile, another plus to BULK is the above average 6,000mg dose of citrulline, lower 180mg dose of caffeine (which may cause fewer jitters), and additional 25mg of AstraGin, which can help with absorption. Transparent Labs BULK is not the cheapest pre-workout on the market, but it’s also not the most expensive. Plus, this product is naturally flavored and sweetened, which is a plus for those who are trying to avoid artificial ingredients. 

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Transparent Labs BULK
Transparent Labs BULK
Transparent Labs BULK

Transparent Labs BULK provides lots of beta-alanine for improved endurance, as well as a slew of ingredients to aid in focus — two key traits for lifters and endurance athletes alike. Plus, it has citrulline, which can help with nitric oxide production.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs BULK

  • Women who are looking for multiple tasty flavors to choose from will appreciate that there are eight here. 
  • Anyone who wants a higher dose of citrulline will like the 6,000mg here. 
  • Folks who prioritize digestion — this product contains 25mg of AstraGin. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Transparent Labs BULK

  • Women looking for a higher dose of caffeine will want to look elsewhere as this supp only contains 180mg. 
  • Customers who are on a tight budget can find less expensive options out there. 

If taste is a priority to you and you’re sick of basic pre-workout flavors, Transparent Labs BULK’s eight flavors should keep you hooked on your pre-workout regimen. 

Best Pre-Workout for Muscle Gain

Some women may be looking for a pre-workout that simply helps boost energy before their workout. However, if you’re also wanting something that can help with performance and muscle gain, Jacked Factory’s NITRO SURGE is the way to go. 

Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE

Though this pre-workout is on the cheaper end of the spectrum, its ingredients are by no means cheap. Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE contains seven science-backed ingredients, including many that can help boost muscle growth. The 1.6g of beta-alanine especially can help increase strength and power, allowing you to lift heavier weights, potentially gaining more muscle mass in the process. In addition, this product contains ingredients that can help with energy and blood flow, like citrulline and caffeine. Plus, it comes in 13 different flavors, which is one of the highest varieties on the market. 

Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE
Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE
Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE

Jacked Factory’s pre-workout is affordable, comes in 13 flavors, and contains fully-dosed ingredients that may help with muscle growth, like the 1.6g of beta-alanine. 

Who Should Buy Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE

  • Women who want a pre-workout that can specifically help with blood flow, strength, and power to potentially build more muscle. 
  • Anyone who only wants a moderate dose of caffeine will like that this pre only has 180mg per serving. 
  • NITRO SURGE offers 13 different flavors, so if it’s flavor variety you’re after, you can definitely find that here. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE

  • If you’re looking for a pre-workout with creatine, you’ll need to look elsewhere. 
  • Those who exercise early in the morning may be seeking a higher dose of caffeine than the 180mg here. 

For starters, if you want to gain muscle, you’ll have to have a rigorous workout routine to match. But if you want a pre-workout that can help push you along a little bit further, the solid dose of beta-alanine in Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE can be useful. 

Best Non-Stim Pre-Workout for Women

A stim-free pre-workout can be ideal for women who work out late at night, or those who are just trying to avoid caffeine in general. This Legion product is one of our favorites. 

Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout (No Caffeine)

Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout provides the option to nix the caffeine at checkout — though their blend includes 350mg of caffeine, you can select “With Caffeine” or “Without Caffeine” when you’re checking out. The blend without the 350mg of caffeine doesn’t change otherwise — you’ll find 8g of citrulline, which can facilitate better pumps, as well as Alpha-GPC, which may help increase power output. Plus, you’ll find a few pre-workout classics like betaine, theanine, and beta-alanine. This supp also comes in 16 flavors, which is one of the widest varieties we’ve seen across the market. 

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Legion Pulse Preworkout
Legion Pulse Preworkout
Legion Pulse Preworkout

This pre-workout supplement can come with or without caffeine and in 16 different flavors. Each serving provides 350 milligrams of L-theanine and eight grams of citrulline, which may facilitate better pumps. 

Who Should Buy Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout (No Caffeine)

  • Women who work out late at night and may be trying to avoid stimulants in their pre-workout. 
  • Folks who want to potentially achieve better pumps will like the high 8g dose of citrulline in this product.
  • Anyone looking for a reasonably priced pre-workout will appreciate the price tag here. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout (No Caffeine)

  • Customers who want an average dose of caffeine will want to look elsewhere. While you can include caffeine in this blend if you select “With Caffeine” at checkout, the dose is higher than many others at 350mg. 
  • Women who want a more extensive ingredients list can find products with more than six primary ingredients. 

For those who are avoiding stimulants, Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout offers a great formula that can help boost blood flow, reduce fatigue, and allow better pumps.

Best Endurance Pre-Workout for Women

For longer workouts, turn to this pick — it contains a few less common pre-workout ingredients, one of which can help extend the effects of caffeine for up to five hours.

Powher Pre-Workout

If you’re looking for a very typical pre-workout with all the main ingredients, you won’t find that here. Powher pushes past typical with its innovative ingredients, like Rednite, Oxyjun, and Enxtra to help supplement a few of the classic pre-workout ingredients this product does have.

Enxtra, in particular, is ideal for athletes who are working out for extended periods of time and may need to up their endurance — this ingredient works in unison with caffeine. It comes from the ginger family and can help extend the energized and alert effects you feel from caffeine for up to five hours. Oxyjun is a type of bark that can also help with cardiovascular endurance. And Rednite comes from beetroot and can help improve blood flow — plus, beets are an important nutrient for tissue growth in women. You’ll also find some more typical pre-workout ingredients like B vitamins, beta-alanine, and tyrosine in this blend. 

Powher
Powher
Powher

A relatively low caffeine pre-workout that's a good mixture of established, science-backed ingredients and newer, slightly experimental compounds that could help with performance.

Who Should Buy Powher Pre-Workout

  • Women who work out for long periods of time and may need ingredients to help extend their endurance — the Enxtra and Oxyjun here can do just that. 
  • Female athletes who would appreciate a beetroot supplement that can help support both tissue growth and blood flow. 
  • Folks who are looking for more innovative ingredients in their pre-workout, rather than just the basics that you find across the market. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Powher Pre-Workout

  • Anyone who wants more than one flavor option — this product only comes in Pink Lemonade. 
  • People who just want pre-workout basics like citrulline or creatine may want to look elsewhere. 

If you’re trying to conquer long workouts and want a little extra kick in endurance, the Enxtra and Oxyjun in this product could be just what you need. 

Best Cheap Pre-Workout for Women

Just because you’re on a budget doesn’t mean you can’t find a high-quality pre-workout. Jacked Factory offers great dosages at an affordable price point. 

Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE

A cheap pre-workout doesn’t mean cheap ingredients. Jacked Factory NITRO DURGE contains 6,000mg of citrulline (per two scoops), which is more than most pre-workouts on the market. You’ll also find a solid dose of theanine, beta-alanine, betaine, and caffeine. Plus, the AstraGin here may help you better absorb all of these ingredients. This product also comes in 11 different flavors, which is a pretty wide variety compared to the rest of the market. And one of the best parts about NITRO SURGE is that you get all of this for under $30 — a much lower price point than many competitors. 

Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE
Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE
Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE

Jacked Factory’s pre-workout is affordable, comes in 13 flavors, and contains fully-dosed ingredients that may help with muscle growth, like the 1.6g of beta-alanine. 

Who Should Buy Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE

  • Folks who want an affordable formula will like the sub-$30 price tag here. 
  • Women who want a high-quality blend of your classic pre-workout ingredients, like citrulline, beta-alanine, and caffeine.
  • Anyone who’s concerned about digestion will like that the AstraGin in this product can help with absorption. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Jacked Factory NITRO SURGE

  • Athletes looking for a pre-workout that includes creatine will need to find a different option. 
  • Anyone who wants a wider variety of less common pre-workout ingredients can find more innovative options on the market. 

For less than $30, this pre-workout provides many of the classic pre-workout ingredients, all at solid dosages. Plus, it comes in 11 different flavors, which should allow you to mix up your routine for many months. 

Best Pre-Workout for Female Runners

Running requires a lot of endurance and stamina, and if you want to maintain your training schedule, a pre-workout that can help provide long-term energy, focus, and performance may help.

Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout

For those tacking on those extra miles, Legion’s science-backed ingredient list can help you increase your stamina. Legion includes a solid dose of beta-alanine, which can help increase endurance. You’ll also find betaine and citrulline, which may also be able to help with muscle endurance. The optional caffeine can boost alertness, and the theanine may help you improve your mood throughout long running workouts. You can buy Legion Pulse in 16 different flavors, all of which are naturally flavored and sweetened. 

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Legion Pulse Preworkout
Legion Pulse Preworkout
Legion Pulse Preworkout

This pre-workout supplement can come with or without caffeine and in 16 different flavors. Each serving provides 350 milligrams of L-theanine and eight grams of citrulline, which may facilitate better pumps. 

Who Should Buy Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout

  • Female runners who are trying to increase their endurance will like solid doses of beta-alanine, citrulline, and betaine here. 
  • If you’re trying to enjoy your longer runs, this product contains theanine, which may be able to improve your mood during workouts. 
  • Folks who like to go for morning runs may appreciate the 350mg of caffeine in this product. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Legion Pulse All-Natural Pre-Workout

  • If you don’t like the tingles you can get from beta-alanine, know that this product contains 3.6 grams of it.
  • If you’re looking for a pre-workout that contains AstraGin, or another ingredient that may help with absorption, you’ll want to look elsewhere. 

For runners — especially long distance runners — a pre-workout that can help with endurance is important. Legion Pulse contains effective doses of citrulline, betaine, and beta-alanine, all of which can help you hit those long Saturday morning runs.

What’s In Your Pre-Workout?

Since pre-workouts can be so robust, we broke it down a little bit further to eliminate some of the research necessary to choose which ingredients may be right for you. 

Caffeine

Caffeine can help with alertness, endurance, power output, strength, and exertion. A typical cup of joe can contain around 180mg of caffeine. Pre-workouts can vary to contain anywhere from 80 to 350mg of caffeine.

Citrulline

Taking about five grams of citrulline (an amino acid commonly found in watermelons) can help with circulation and blood flow, improving power output in the process. This is one of the most common pre-workout ingredients, but you can also take it as a separate supplement and stack it in your regimen. (3)

Beta-Alanine

Beta-alanine can help improve endurance-based cardio and strength workouts. Since you may be working your muscles for longer, beta-alanine may also help with hypertrophy. A typical dose is about 1.6 to 3.2 grams. (4)

Creatine

Creatine is one of the most researched pre-workout ingredients. It can help increase power output, up anaerobic capacity, and decrease fatigue. It may also increase muscle size by drawing more water to your muscles. A normal dose is about five to 10 grams per day, and consistency is key, whether you’re taking your creatine in a pre-workout or as a separate supplement altogether. (5)

Betaine Anhydrous

You can find this ingredient in beets and leafy greens, and it’s been linked to power output and muscular endurance. Betaine (from three to six grams daily) can potentially decrease post-exercise cortisol, which may help your body better respond to stress. (6

Taurine

Taurine can be helpful in improving focus, and it may help with recovery and muscle cramps, too. A typical dose you may find in pre-workouts is one to two grams. (7)

Tyrosine

In addition to potentially helping with focus, tyrosine may also help produce adrenaline and dopamine, which can help the body combat stress (like the kind you endure during intense exercise). While most research has been done with a dose of 5 grams, there isn’t enough information to provide a minimum dosage — we recommend somewhere between 500mg and 5g, but it’s important to talk to your doctor to decipher the right dose for you. (8)

How We Decide Our Picks

We tested a lot of pre-workouts to choose our favorites. In the process, these are the main factors we considered in deciding which ones we thought were the “best.” 

Price

Most of the pre-workouts we tried ranged from $1.00 and $2.00 per serving. You can find plenty of pre-workouts closer to the $1.00 range, so the products we considered closer to $2.00 per serving were particularly robust and worth the extra cash. 

Dosage

Though most pre-workouts include research-backed ingredients, not all of them provide the proper doses of these ingredients. We not only walked you through the proper doses for each ingredient above, but we also didn’t include products on this list that didn’t match those standard dosages. And for the ingredients (like tyrosine) where the dosage is not clear, we made sure they were within the proper range that had been included in studies. 

Ingredients

Pre-workout ingredients lists are longer than a lot of other supplements on the market. You won’t find many pre-workouts with fewer than seven or eight ingredients. Some pre-workouts include the base classic pre-workout ingredients, plus some additional, more innovative ingredients that aren’t as common across the market. Others just stick to the basics. No matter if you’re looking for your typical citrulline, caffeine, and tyrosine blend, or you’re wanting to try something a little different, like Powher, we’ve included a research-backed option for you on this list. 

Branding

There’s no denying that many of the products we included on this list have branding and marketing that was designed specifically for women. Some may even include ingredients that are particularly good for women — like beetroot. However, we also included some products that are marketed and branded more generically. If you’re looking for a product that’s made specifically for women, we have plenty for you here — but, we also have options for women who are looking for a non-gender specific pre-workout that may just contain a few solid ingredients that are ideal for female athletes in particular. 

What to Consider Before Buying

It’s no secret that the jitters and tingles you may sometimes feel after taking pre-workout can lead to concern for some. However, pre-workouts are legal and the ingredients are all backed by research, so when it comes down to it, you really need to consider what you are personally comfortable with and what your goals are before buying a pre-workout. 

Caffeine

Caffeine can cause anxiety, diarrhea, and high blood pressure in some, so it’s important to note your tolerance before buying a pre-workout that contains over 300mg of caffeine. However, caffeine isn’t necessarily bad for you — some people may just tolerate it better than others. For those that exercise late at night, caffeine also may not be ideal since it’s hard to relax after ingesting it. However, if you take caffeine at tolerable doses that your (individual) body can handle without experiencing adverse effects, and you don’t take it right before you need to go to sleep, most people can handle caffeine reasonably well. 

Beta-Alanine Tingles

If you’ve ever taken a pre-workout before, you may have felt a slight tingle after ingesting it. Beta-alanine — one of the most common pre-workout ingredients — can cause paresthesia, which is a tingling feeling on the skin. While it’s not harmful, some may not like the feeling. And on the other hand, some may also love it, taking the tingles as a sign that the supplement they’re taking is getting to work. It’s really just a personal preference when it comes to having or not having this particular ingredient in your pre-workout. Just note that if you don’t want to take beta-alanine, you may have a harder time finding a pre-workout, as most of these supplements do contain this ingredient. 

Dosage

While many pre-workouts will tout their ingredients without providing the proper dosage to receive the potential effect, the products we included on this list all contain the proper doses — which we covered in detail earlier in this article. Before deciding which pre-workout supplement to buy, make sure you’re checking the labels against the dosages we talked about to ensure you’re purchasing an effective supplement. 

Women-Centric Blends

Many of the products we featured here have packaging or ingredients lists that are particularly made for women. Whether they include beetroot or just have a subjectively appealing color scheme on their package, many of these pre-workouts on this list are meant for women in particular. However, if you’re looking for a product that is still great for women, but does not necessarily market themselves to women, we’ve also included a few of those options. You’ll want to decide if you want a women-centric blend or a generic blend before scouring the market. 

Consult a Physician

Above everything, it’s imperative that you speak with a physician before adding a new supplement to your regimen. Many people have intolerances (like a caffeine intolerance), and consulting a doctor first and foremost can help you discover which ingredients you should and shouldn’t consume in your pre-workout. 

Final Word

It’s no secret that many supplements are marketed toward men. We sifted through the market and picked out some of the best pre-workout supplements that can benefit women in particular. Some of these products are made for and marketed specifically to women while others are more generic, but have an ingredients list that can potentially benefit women specifically. 

Most women can take generic pre-workouts — after all, they’re made for the general public, not just men. But if you’re looking for branding that’s specifically targeting women or specific ingredients that could potentially benefit women, this list has you covered. Just make sure you’re considering your personal goals, key ingredients, and price range before hitting the market. After that, allow this list to help you through the rest. 

FAQs

Do I need a pre-workout that’s made specifically for women?

No. Most women can take the same pre-workouts that men take, and there are countless generic pre-workouts across the market. However, if you want something that is specifically made for women for peace of mind, there are plenty of options for you as well.

How much caffeine is too much caffeine in my pre-workout?

Everyone has a different tolerance, but the general dosage falls between 80mg and 350mg. Consult a physician before adding more caffeine to your regimen if you are concerned.

How much do pre-workouts cost?

The cost of a container of pre-workout varies greatly, but per serving, pre-workouts generally cost between $1.00 and $2.00. The ones that cost closer to $2.00 are generally more robust, while the ones that are closer to $1.00 may just include the classic pre-workout ingredients with no extras.

References

  1. Flanagan SD, Looney DP, Miller MJ, DuPont WH, Pryor L, Creighton BC, Sterczala AJ, Szivak TK, Hooper DR, Maresh CM, Volek JS, Ellis LA, Kraemer WJ. The Effects of Nitrate-Rich Supplementation on Neuromuscular Efficiency during Heavy Resistance Exercise. J Am Coll Nutr. 2016;35(2):100-7. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1081572. Epub 2016 Feb 17. Erratum in: J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 May-Jun;36(4):317. PMID: 26885762.
  2. Morris DM, Shafer RS, Fairbrother KR, Woodall MW. Effects of lactate consumption on blood bicarbonate levels and performance during high-intensity exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 Aug;21(4):311-7. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.21.4.311. PMID: 21813914.
  3. Gonzalez AM, Trexler ET. Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Humans: A Review of the Current Literature. J Strength Cond Res. 2020 May;34(5):1480-1495. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003426. PMID: 31977835.
  4. Bellinger PM. β-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jun;28(6):1751-70. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000327. PMID: 24276304.
  5. Gann, J. J., McKinley-Barnard, S. K., Andre, T. L., Schoch, R. D., & Willoughby, D. S. (2015). Effects of a traditionally-dosed creatine supplementation protocol and resistance training on the skeletal muscle uptake and whole-body metabolism and retention of creatine in males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(Suppl 1), P2. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P2
  6. Cholewa, J. M., Wyszczelska-Rokiel, M., Glowacki, R., Jakubowski, H., Matthews, T., Wood, R., Craig, S. A., & Paolone, V. (2013). Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-10-39
  7. McLeay Y, Stannard S, Barnes M. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males. Antioxidants (Basel). 2017 Oct 17;6(4):79. doi: 10.3390/antiox6040079. PMID: 29039798; PMCID: PMC5745489.
  8. Jongkees BJ, Hommel B, Kühn S, Colzato LS. Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands–A review. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Nov;70:50-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.08.014. Epub 2015 Aug 25. PMID: 26424423.