x

Get Stronger in 3 minutes (or less)

World records, results, training, nutrition, breaking news, and more. Join the BarBend Newsletter for everything you need to get stronger. Join the BarBend Newsletter for workouts, diets, breaking news and more.
BarBend Newsletter

The Back Squat | Form, Warmup, Benefits, Muscles, and More

Everything you need to know to properly perform and complete the back squat.

At BarBend, we hope everyone knows that they should be squatting in some capacity. Regardless of fitness level, sport, and aspirations, squats are a critical component to optimal health and fitness and can bring a ton of benefits to daily life. 

When determining which squat style one should embrace, we must first take a deeper look into the specifics behind each back squat style to determine the best fit for one’s needs and goals. The back squat — when done properly — can be a fantastic tool for strength, power, and overall muscular development.

In this back squat exercise guide, we’ll be covering multiple topics including:

How to Perform the Back Squat: Step-By-Step Guide

There are two main back squat styles; high-bar and low-bar back squats. Both of which are discussed below. Note, that the below step-by-step- guide will go over how to perform the high-bar back squat.

You can learn more about how to perform the low-bar back squat in this low-bar back squat guide, however many of the same steps apply to both variations.

1.
Set Your Base

Start by stepping under a barbell (supported in a rack). This step is key as it is your chance to properly engage the upper back (step 2), set a firm foundation with the core, and mentally prepare for the un-racking of the barbell.

While you will need to step out of the rack to set your feet up for the squat, it is recommended that you place your feet in the squat stance, or slightly narrower, as you want to think about “squatting” the load off the rack hooks, rather than stepping in and out with one foot, etc. This is especially the case as the loads get heavier.

Coach’s Tip: This step is significantly important the heavier the loads are. Not not rush this process.

2.
Get a Grip

Grip widths will vary, however the key is that you should be able to take a full grip on the barbell, as this will allow you to maximally contract the upper back/traps/forearms to properly secure the barbell in the high-bar squat position. Note, that the barbell should be placed above the traps, or on them, rather than on the rear delts/lower on the back (like the low-bar squat set up).

When doing this, be sure to actively flex your upper back and traps up into the barbell, which will give you some “padding” for the barbell to rest on. Lastly, be careful not to hyper-extend the back as you do this, as many lifters will lose tension and bracing in the core.

Coach’s Tip: Squeeze the bar and find a secure position. Once you have found it, pull the barbell tight into the body so that you and the barbell are now one, massively dense and stable unit.

3.
Step Out and Get Stable

When you are ready, step out of the rack, using either a 2 or 3-step approach (as this is often the best way to minimize barbell movement and conserve energy). The feet should be about hip-width apart, with the toes slightly pointed out. The chest should be held high, with the core and obliques contracted.

Be sure not to have too much of a forward lean, as this high-bar variation should allow you to keep your torso up vertical.

Coach’s Tip: This can be challenging and inconsistent for many beginner and intermediate squatters (the pre-squat routine). Be sure to practice the same set up and walkout techniques every time you squat, as this will help it become more automated (one less thing to worry about).

4.
Pull Yourself Down into the Squat

With the feet planted, and pressure evenly distrusted throughout the foot, slightly push the hips back while simultaneously allowing the knees the bend forwards, tracking over the toes. Keep the upper back locked to minimize forward lean or collapse of the thoracic spine.

Think about gripping the floor with the toes and creating space for the belly between the thighs. Often, the cue “knees out” is used, which can be beneficial for some (however it can also cause excessive bowing of the knees). Regardless, think about pulling your torso straight down so that the abdominals and hip flexors assist in the lower of the movement.

Coach’s Tip: Take your time as you lower yourself into the squat, making sure to feel any weight shifting back/forward or tendencies to collapse the torso.

5.
Squat to Depth, and Stand Up

Squat to the desired depth, which for many is at parallel or below. Once you have assumed the desired depth, push your back upwards into the bar while simultaneously pushing the feet aggressively through the floor, making sure to keep weight in the heels (and toes). As you stand, continue to keep the chest high and core locked.

Be sure to keep your spine locked into position, and your heels down on the ground. A general rule of thumb when assessing high-bar squat technique is that the shin angle should be parallel to the spine. If they are to intersect (id you continues those angles) at any point in time, it could indicate excessive forward lean of the torso (horizontal displacement of the barbell, which is not desired).

Coach’s Tip: You should feel your legs (quadriceps) working, as well as the upper back and hips.

Squat Warmup

A great warmup is a must before getting under the barbell, especially if you plan to train heavy. Some lifters like to simply warmup by performing lighter barbell squats, while others enjoy doing movement to progress the body into the squat movement pattern.

There are multiple ways to warmup for squats and regardless what you prefer, it’s a must to prep the body properly before loading it. If you’re in need of some squat warmup ideas, check out our video below featuring elite Swedish powerlifter Isabella Von Weissenberg!

High-Bar vs Low-Bar Back Squat

In our previous article, “High Bar vs Low-Bar Back Squat“, we discussed the specific differences between these two similar, yet slightly different squat movements. In summary:

  • Bar Placement: The high bar has the barbell sits upon the back of the traps, just below the C7 vertebrae. The low bar back squat placement is much lower upon the back, often having the barbell rest upon the spine of the scapulae or across the back of the posterior shoulder.
  • Hip and Knee Mechanics: While both movements involved knee and hip flexion/extension, the high bar squat requires a greater amount of knee flexion to maintain an upright torso positioning. By doing so, the quadriceps are engaged at a higher degree than in the low bar back squat. The low bar back squat has the lifter push their hips back more to allow for a more forward leaning back angle, which in turn increases hip, hamstring, and back involvement via greater hip flexion and extension with decreased knee flexion needs.

Based on these factors, coaches and athletes can determine which variation is the most beneficial and sport specific to the athletes’ needs.

3 Main Benefits of Back Squats

Below are three main benefits of the back squat (both variations). It’s important to note that back squats are one of the most beneficial exercises (when done correctly, and not in excess) for strength, sports performance (especially in strength and power sports), and leg strength. For further reading, you can also find more about the immense benefits of the back squat here.

1. Improve Leg (Quadriceps, Hamstrings, and Glute) Strength and Hypertrophy

Whether you are a strength and power elite athlete or a newbie to the lifting world, squatting is one of the primary exercise responsible for some of the strongest, powerful, and most athletic lifters/athletes in the world. This exercise, like the deadlift, builds serious leg and back strength, and allows you to load the body with significantly higher amounts of external loading to induce chromosomal and physiological growth response.

2. Enhance Jumping, Sprinting, and Sports Performance Capacity

The squat patterning and performance outcomes have been linked to jumping abilities, running performance (as well as the deadlit), and positive outcomes in sports (such as heavier totals for powerlifters and stronger legs for weightlifters).

3. Improve Functional Movement

Squatting is a natural movement pattern for humans, as we have evolved to allow for ankle, knee, and hip flexion to produce movements such as walking, running, sprinting, jumping, crouching, crawling, etc. The squat, which is often a position many infants find themselves in, has shown itself time and time again as one of the most beneficial movements a human can reinforce with stability (strength). We can use the back squat to also improve proper joint functioning and establish a stronger basis for healthy, injury-free movement.

Muscles Worked – Back Squat

Below are the muscle groups involved with the back squat movement. Note, that the back squat is a very taxing and compound exercise, therefore many smaller and assistance muscles that may not be listed here are also worked. Additionally, barbell placement and movement patterning may shift greater emphasis on loading onto one muscle group more than the other depending on the backs squat movement you select (high bar vs low bar back squat) which will be noted below.

  • Quadriceps (greater emphasis in high bar back squat)
  • Gluteals
  • Hamstrings  (greater emphasis in low bar back squat)
  • Spinal Erectors  (greater emphasis in low bar back squat)
  • Latissimus Dorsi
  • Trapezius
  • Rhomboids, Scapular Muscles, Posterior Shoulder

Back Squat Table of Contents Continued

Who Should Perform Back Squats
Who Should Perform Back Squats

Who Should Perform the Back Squat?

As mentioned above, squats can be useful for so many different training populations. Below we’ve laid out who should train squats, along with a rationale for the “why” when doing so. 

Strength and Power Athletes

Strength and power athletes often rely heavily on squats to build foundation total-body strength, lower body strength and muscle mass, and improve performance in various sport specific lifts/movements.

  • Powerlifters: The squat is the first of three competition lifts that comprise a lifter’s total (squat, bench, deadlift). Often in powerlifting, the low bar squat is the style of choice as this allows the posterior chain to be highly active (more than in the high bar squat) resulting in a lifter often being able to withstand greater loads upon their backs. 
  • Strongman Athletes: Both squat movements can be used to build a well rounded athlete (much like high bar squats for quad strength and mass for powerlifters). When looking for maximal strength, often the low bar squat can be trained since the lifter is able to use more of their leverage against a barbell. 
  • Weightlifters: Unlike powerlifting, the competition lifts for Olympic weightlifting are the snatch and clean and jerk. The high-bar squat is critical for leg strength and torso positional strength for both competitive movements.

Competitive Fitness/CrossFit

Competitive fitness training and competitions involve many movements such as the snatch, clean and jerk, jumping, and other upright squatting movements. They also involve a good deal of pulling movements that require sound hip and back strength. .

General Fitness and Sport

General fitness enthusiasts should perform back squats on a regular basis, as they’ll have three major benefits for this population including: 

  • Lower body strength and muscular development. 
  • Improvements in coordination and overall movement fluidity. 
  • Carryover to movement patterns that are used in everyday life such as picking things up and going up stairs.

Basically, squats can make you more dynamic in multiple walks of life!

High Bar Back Squat Setup
High Bar Back Squat Setup

Back Squat Programming Recommendations

Below are three primary training goals and programming recommendations when programming the back squat into workouts. Note, that these are general guidelines, and by no means should be used as the only way to program toes to bar.

Depending on the goals of the athlete (movement skill, core strength, endurance), the coach should input this exercise accordingly into the regimen. Generally speaking, training the back squat for strength and/or explosiveness should be done earlier in the workout, with higher repetition/endurance training taking place after main strength an power exercise have been completed.

General Strength– Reps and Sets

For general strength building sets, athletes can perform lower repetition ranges for more sets.

  • 4-6 sets of 2-5 repetitions, resting 2-3 minutes
  • Increasing squat strength is a universal endeavor, with a wide variety of programming philosophies. Here is a list of some of the more famous squat strength programs out there.

Muscle Hypertrophy – Reps and Sets

For increased muscular size and hypertrophy, the below repetitions can be used to increase muscular loading volume.

  • 4-6 sets of 5-12 repetitions, resting 60-90 seconds between, with heavy to moderate loads
  • It is important to note that muscle hypertrophy can still occur (and often does, even with more advanced lifters) with higher load, lower repetition squat training. Be sure to read more about the various types of muscle hypertrophy here.

Muscle Endurance – Reps and Sets

Some lifters may want to train greater muscle endurance (for sport), in which higher repetition ranges and/or shorter rest periods are recommended. You can also hold for pauses and add time to the set.

  • 2-3 sets of 12+ repetitions or for more than 45-60 seconds under tension, resting 60-90 seconds between (this is highly sport specific)
  • You can also increase time under tension sets like pauses, tempo training, and partial sets to further enhance muscular stamina.

Back Squat Variations

Below are three (3) common back squat variations that can be done to improve your strength, form, and power.

1. 1 1/2 Squat

The 1 1/2 squat entails lifters performing a full rep, then a half rep to complete one full rep. This variation is great for increasing time under tension, improving postural positions, and sharpening mental awareness during the squat. 

2. Pause Back Squat

The pause back squat is performed in the identical manner as a regular back squat, with the exception that the lifter will perform a pause and isometric contraction at a given stage in the range of motion. Most commonly, the pause will occur at the bottom of the squat, however it can also occur at parallel, halfway into the squat, or at any other stage where there may be a weakness or need for improvement.

3. Tempo Back Squat

Tempo training during the back squat can improve muscle growth, increase angular strength and coordination, and improve a lifter’s awareness and understanding of the balance and positioning within the squat. To do this, simply choose a cadence (for example, 2-4 seconds in the eccentric phase) and learn how to engage muscle groups and maintain tension under load.

Back Squat Alternatives

Below are two two back squat alternatives that can be done to vary programming, challenge lifters, and more.

1. Goblet Squat

The goblet squat is a fantastic back squat alternative for the beginner that want to nail down their movement mechanics. In addition to being a fantastic precursor for back squats, the goblet squat is also awesome to use for warm-ups and when teaching torso positioning. 

2. Lunge or Split Squats

Both lunges and split squats are two unilateral variations of the squatting movement. Integrating them within a program can boost overall squat strength performance, enhance muscle activation of the quadriceps and glutes, and help to reinforce/develop joint stability and improve movement patterning under load.

Wrapping Up

The back squat is a fundamental exercise that everyone should keep in their lifting arsenal, as it can bring benefits to multiple lifting populations. At the end of the day, you don’t have to back squat on a regular basis to build a strong lower body, however, it is one of the better tools to accomplish lower-body focused goals. 

Back Squat FAQs

Who should back squat?

The back squat is an interesting exercise because it holds benefits for every lifting population, however, not everyone needs to perform this exercise to progress. However, if you’re able to and comfortable in doing so, then regularly using the back squat is a fantastic tool to develop total body musculature.

What are the benefits of the back squat?

The back squat holds multiple benefits for every fitness enthusiast. Some of the most popular benefits include:

  1. Improve lower back strength.
  2. Increase lower body power.
  3. Build a strong core/torso (due to stabilization of weight).
  4. Sharpen body awareness and coordination.
  5. Build resiliency in sport and daily life.

Can beginners back squat?

Absolutely! However, it’s worth noting that true beginners should seek out a coach when first learning the back squat. It’s never a bad idea to have someone watch and critique your form when starting out, but yes, everyone — ever true beginners — can back squat.

What muscles do back squats work?

The back squat works a variety of muscles and this is why most call it the “king” of the lifts. Some of major muscle groups squats work include:

Primary Muscles

  • Glutes
  • Quads
  • Adductors

Secondary Muscles

  • Obliques
  • Rectus Abdominis
  • Erector Spinae
  • Calves
  • Hamstrings
  • Traps

Featured Image: Mike Dewar

Mike Dewar

Mike Dewar

Mike holds a Master’s in Exercise Physiology and a Bachelor’s in Exercise Science. He’s a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) and is the Assistant Strength and Conditioning Coach at New York University. Mike is also the Founder of J2FIT, a strength and conditioning brand in New York City that offers personal training, online programs, and has an established USAW Olympic Weightlifting club.

3 thoughts on “The Back Squat | Form, Warmup, Benefits, Muscles, and More”

  1. I really enjoyed this article and found it to be very helpful. I have been doing Crossfit for quite some time and have made quite a bit of strength gains over the years, but I feel like my BS has always been so inconsistent. Sometime it feels great other times I struggle to lift 50% of 1RM. I had a question my DL has always been pretty high. I am a 38 year old woman and weigh 145 and my DL max is 290, but my BS max is 205. Should these numbers be closer. Is there some kind of correlation between the two. Just thought I would ask again thank you for the advice and help. Hoping to make more gains on my BS by implementing these ideas to my training.

  2. Hi Carrie,
    for what its worth, I’m in my mid-40s , with a 3 decade litany of injuries and bodily damage. I have only been lifting for 6 months and have noticed significant improvements in mobility, strength and pain-management.
    The effects of my back, knee and ankle injuries have been massively helped by squatting (which runs counter to lots of the “advice” I have had) so please don’t think that it is an exercise that will be beyond you.

Leave a Comment