Best Pre-Workout Supplements For Muscle Gain, Weight Loss, And More

Lift more, run faster, and boost focus with these stand-out pre-workout supplements.

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Of all the workout products you can buy, pre-workout supplements may have the widest variety of ingredients, dosages, and effects — which is why it can be hard to find the best pre-workout supplement for your individual needs. Also, isn’t proper sleep, nutrition, and hydration all you need for an excellent workout? It’s undoubtedly true that these three lifestyle choices can radically improve your performance (as well as mood, muscle growth, and immunity). But for those who want a little something extra, the right pre-workout supplement can improve performance.

Choosing the right pre-workout, however, is challenging. Besides caffeine, scores of other ingredients appear in these products, including amino acids, plant extracts, and other powders meant to improve endurance, power output, focus, fat loss, and blood flow. That’s why we’ve tried dozens of pre-workouts, from the biggest brands to the newest up-and-comers, to find the absolute best pre-workout supplements for any training goal.

The Best Pre-Workout Supplements

Editor’s note: The content on BarBend is meant to be informative in nature, but it should not be taken as medical advice. The opinions and articles on this site are not intended for use as diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment of health problems. It’s always a good idea to talk to your doctor before beginning a new fitness, nutritional, and/or supplement routine. 

Best Pre-Workout Supplements Video Review

Though we still want you to read our thoroughly researched, thoughtful pre-workout review, sometimes a video is just easier to digest. We’ve got you covered on both. Check out our equally thoughtful and scrupulously researched video review below. 

Best Pre-Workout Overall

When it comes to looking for the best pre-workout, we value research-backed ingredients in clearly disclosed dosages that are clinically proven — Huge Supplements Wrecked Pre-Workout checks all of those boxes. 

Huge Supplements Pre-Workout

Wrecked Pre-Workout has all the makings of an excellent pre-workout. This product is one of the strongest pre-workouts on the market, and has over 17 clinically dosed ingredients. The caffeine content is quite high with 250mg of caffeine anhydrous and 100mg of di-caffeine malate, totaling 350mg of caffeine. The dose of beta-alanine being 3,500mg is also properly dosed. 

On top of the stimulants, Wrecked comes chock full of ingredients that are designed to help with your pump, such as betaine anhydrous and l-citrulline. It comes in four different flavors —Raspberry Mojito, Bomb Popsicle, Rainbow Burst, and Peach Rings, and is priced reasonably when compared to other pre-workouts across the market.

Huge Supplements Wrecked
Huge Supplements Wrecked
Huge Supplements Wrecked

This product packs 18 ingredients at high doses, including 9,000mg of citrulline malate, 3,200mg of beta alanine, 350mg of caffeine, and 2,000mg of betaine anhydrous. Plus, you’ll find 1,000mg of tyrosine and 100mg of Himalayan pink sea salt, as well.

Who Should Buy Huge Supplements Wrecked Pre-Workout

  • Athletes who want a strong pre-workout will like the high doses here (for example, you’ll find 350mg of caffeine and 8,000mg of l-citrulline per serving).
  • Those who are looking for a well-rounded pre-workout to potentially help in all areas of your workout, from pump to focus to energy.
  • Folks who prefer to take a pre-workout in powder form, rather than pill form.
  • People who like flavor options. Wrecked comes in four flavors — Raspberry Mojito, Bomb Popsicle, Peach Rings, and Rainbow Burst. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Huge Supplements Wrecked Pre-Workout

  • Athletes who want a pre-workout that also includes creatine, so they don’t have to take it separately.
  • Someone who is looking for a caffeine-free pre-workout, or someone who is sensitive to high doses of caffeine.
  • Anyone who doesn’t like a large pre-workout scoop. The serving size is 30.2g, which is roughly the size of a scoop of protein powder.

Reasonably priced and loaded with clinically dosed ingredients, Wrecked Pre-Workout has everything that we look for in a pre-workout supplement. Though the scoop size is somewhat large, we think it is worth it to get the proper amount of each ingredient to be maximally effective.

Want the full scoop on pre-workouts? See our complete guide to pre-workout supplements here

Best Pre-Workout for Muscle Gain

Some pre-workouts contain a bunch of stimulants and that’s it. Those are great for energy, but picks like this one pack in other helpful ingredients that are good for muscle gain, like beetroot and BCAAs.

Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout

Swolverine set out to make a pre-workout supplement that’s made from all natural ingredients, and still packs a punch. When it comes to the performance edge it’s designed to allow you to train harder and longer. The citrulline malate at 5g and beta-alanine at 3.2g is dosed higher than many other competitors. Beta-alanine can help improve time to exhaustion, potentially allowing you to blast through more sets and reps and achieve higher gains.

The blood flow and pump you can potentially get from PRE is awesome too, thanks to the generous portion of 2.5g of betaine anhydrous (which is derived from beetroot, and can help open up the veins for better blood flow). One notable thing about this pre-workout is that it doesn’t contain any caffeine or stimulants — just ingredients to help you power through your sets by sheer force alone.

Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout
Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout
Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout

Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout may lack stimulants, but it makes up for that with a great blend of high-dosed ingredients to help improve blood flow, recovery, and endurance. The citrulline malate and betaine anhydrous can give you the edge you need to conquer your next gym session.

Who Should Buy Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout

  • Anyone looking for a stimulant-free pre-workout that still packs a punch in the strength and endurance department.
  • Athletes who want to know exactly what is in their supplements will like that the label here is clear and easy to read.
  • Lifters who want that tingly sensation from a large dose of beta-alanine, and the endurance boost associated with it.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout

  • Anyone who doesn’t like the flavor of Mango Lemonade since that is the only flavor this product comes in.
  • Someone who prefers their pre-workout to have caffeine or other stimulants — this is stim-free.
  • Someone on a budget since the price per serving here is about $2.20.

If you are looking to pack on muscle, you’ll need to push it hard in the gym, and this pre-workout is designed to help you with that. It may only come in one flavor, but the ingredient list is well thought out, and all the dosages are right on the money.

Strongest Pre-Workout

This pick’s ingredients stay true to its name — Wrecked is potently dosed, providing one of the strongest doses of citrulline on this list. 

Huge Supplements Wrecked

Huge Supplements Wrecked packs 18 ingredients at high doses. There’s 9,000mg of citrulline malate, 3,200mg of beta alanine, 350mg of caffeine, and 2,000mg of betaine anhydrous — all of which are higher doses than the average you would find on the market.

In addition, you’ll find 1,000mg of tyrosine that may help with focus and 100mg of Himalayan pink sea salt that can help with hydration. Each serving doses 21.1 grams of these ingredients at 25 servings per container. However, the site doesn’t do a great job at explaining some of their ingredients’ uses and a few of the ingredients are not super common in pre-workouts (like theobromine, which can be helpful for cardiac health and isopropylnorsynephrine, which can help with fat burn).

If you’re a beginner who is concerned about knowing the “why” behind each ingredient and its dose, this pick may leave something to be desired for you. 

Huge Supplements Wrecked
Huge Supplements Wrecked
Huge Supplements Wrecked

This product packs 18 ingredients at high doses, including 9,000mg of citrulline malate, 3,200mg of beta alanine, 350mg of caffeine, and 2,000mg of betaine anhydrous. Plus, you’ll find 1,000mg of tyrosine and 100mg of Himalayan pink sea salt, as well.

Who Should Buy Huge Supplements Wrecked

  • Folks looking for a potent dose of typical pre-workout ingredients will like the numbers on this label. 
  • Athletes who prefer a pre-workout with caffeine. This product contains 350mg. 
  • People who appreciate a robust ingredients list will like that there are 18 different pre-workout ingredients here. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Huge Supplements Wrecked

  • Anyone who wants all of their pre-workout ingredients explained to them on the label or website — this product contains some less common pre-workout ingredients that they don’t explain in depth on their site. 
  • Customers who want a stim-free formula will want to look elsewhere as this pre has 350mg of caffeine.

For a powerful pre-workout with high doses of ingredients like citrulline, beta alanine, and caffeine, Wrecked is the way to go. 

Best Pre-Workout for Men

It’s safe to assume many men are after more muscle and strength — so it’s crucial to select a pre-workout with specific formulations to aid muscle- and strength-building while providing the energy needed for productive workouts.

Promix Pre-Workout

This supplement contains 3.2g of beta-alanine, which can give you the tingles when you’re lifting, 3g of the amino acid L-tyrosine, 1g of the amino acid taurine, 200mg of coffee bean extract for a potential boost in energy, and 250 percent of your daily B12 intake.

This last ingredient is extra beneficial for men as one study suggests that men are more susceptible than women when it comes to B12 deficiencies (1). The amino acids in here have the potential to help repair muscles after intense workouts and possibly aid in creating muscle mass. The caffeine is an extra perk and is equivalent to almost two cups of coffee. 

This formula comes in Lemon, Mixed Berry, Strawberry Lemon, Tingle Free Lemon (which does not include beta-alanine), Cherry Lime, Raspberry Lemon, and Stim-Free Raspberry Lemon (which does not contain caffeine). At $1.00 per serving, this all-natural pre-workout has a fair price tag for the ingredient list and the possible benefits it may provide. 

Promix Pre-Workout for Men
Promix Pre-Workout for Men
Promix Pre-Workout for Men

This all-natural pre-workout contains B12, beta-alanine, amino acids L-tyrosine and taurine, and caffeine that may help you get through your toughest workouts and may aid in recovery. It comes in seven delicious flavors and costs $1.00 per serving. 

Who Should Buy Promix Pulse Pre-Workout

  • Men who focus on strength training and want a specific formula that may help them lift heavier and recover better will like the amino acids and beta-alanine in this formula.
  • People who want a solid dose of caffeine can find that in this product. It contains 200mg, which is the equivalent to two cups of coffee. 
  • Men who want an additional boost of B12 will appreciate that this has 250 percent of your daily needs.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Promix Pre-Workout

  • If you want a pre-workout that contains creatine, you’ll want to look elsewhere. 
  • Those who are avoiding caffeine — one flavor is stimulant-free, but most have the equivalent of two cups of coffee.

If you’re looking for a pre-workout that may help you prolong your time in the gym and fuel your muscles, this pick has amino acids, beta-alanine (unless you opt for Tingle Free Lemon), and vitamin B12. 

Best Pre-Workout for Pumps

Getting a “pump” in your workout means you’re increasing blood flow to a muscle. For some, it might not just be an aesthetic benefit — it may also help with hypertrophy and muscle soreness due to increased blood flow. This specific pre-workout can help facilitate pumps by increasing blood flow to your muscles. 

Huge Supplements Wrecked

Arnold Schwarzenegger said that one of the best feelings in the world is the pump, and we tend to agree. Some gymgoers, especially those who are interested in bodybuilding or maximizing muscle size, look for pre-workouts that provide a skin-splitting pump. In reality, pumps are just caused by lots of blood going to a certain muscle or muscle group because it is working really hard, but there are some supplements that can help to increase these effects. 

Wrecked by Huge Supplements has all the right ingredients in the right doses that can help get your blood flowing and blood vessels open (like l-citrulline at 8,000mg, betaine anhydrous at 3,000mg, and beta-alanine at 3,500mg). It also has a hearty 350mg of total caffeine for a potential boost in energy to rep out those sets when you’re chasing the pump.

Huge Supplements Wrecked
Huge Supplements Wrecked
Huge Supplements Wrecked

This product packs 18 ingredients at high doses, including 9,000mg of citrulline malate, 3,200mg of beta alanine, 350mg of caffeine, and 2,000mg of betaine anhydrous. Plus, you’ll find 1,000mg of tyrosine and 100mg of Himalayan pink sea salt, as well.

Who Should Buy Huge Supplements Wrecked

  • Athletes who want to prioritize blood flow to a specific muscle during their workout will appreciate the l-citrulline in this supplement.
  • People who like to look pumped. Bodybuilders, for example, may want to look more full, and pumped before stepping on stage. 
  • Cardio junkies — the l-citrulline in this product may also facilitate muscular endurance, and beta-alanine has been associated with better lactic acid buffering.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Huge Supplements Wrecked

  • Someone who wants something without caffeine — this has 350mg per serving. 
  • Anyone who may want creatine in their pre-workout formula.
  • Someone who doesn’t like taking a large scoop of pre-workout since this is 30.2g per serving.

With a large dose of l-citrulline and other ingredients that may help give you a great pump, Huge Supplements Wrecked is the right choice if you’re looking to increase blood flow. Give this a try during your next session, and you just might not be able to touch your head from the arm and shoulder pump.

Best All Natural Pre-Workout

Don’t want artificial flavors, sweeteners, or colors? Here’s one of our favorite options, which also comes in seven delicious flavors and contains natural whole-food ingredients. 

Promix Pre-Workout

While artificial sweeteners aren’t technically harmful, some folks do prefer steering clear. The good news is this Promix Pre-Workout provides a naturally flavored blend without compromising the ingredient label. This formula is vegan, plant-based, keto, and contains no sugars or carbs. It uses whole food ingredients such as lemons, turmeric, berries, and green coffee to flavor, color, and caffeinate the supplement. 

The formula also includes vitamin B12, amino acids taurine and L-tyrosine, and a healthy dose of 3.2 grams of beta-alanine for those intra-workout tingles. It comes in seven delicious flavor choices — Lemon, Mixed Berry, Strawberry Lemon, Tingle Free Lemon (which does not contain beta-alanine), Cherry Lime, Raspberry Lemon, and Stim-Free Raspberry Lemon (caffeine-free) — and costs $1.00 per serving.

Promix All Natural Pre-Workout
Promix All Natural Pre-Workout
Promix All Natural Pre-Workout

This all-natural pre-workout contains B12, beta-alanine, amino acids L-tyrosine and taurine, and caffeine that may help you get through your toughest workouts and may aid in recovery. It comes in seven delicious flavors and costs $1.00 per serving. 

Who Should Buy Promix Pre-Workout

  • People who don’t want artificial flavors in their pre-workout will appreciate that this product does not contain any. 
  • Those who want whole-food sourced color and flavor will like to see the turmeric, lemon and berries in the ingredient list here for those purposes. 
  • Athletes who value a plant-based and vegan pre-workout should look no further. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Promix Pre-Workout

  • Individuals who don’t care about artificial flavors. That’s not to say this is an inferior product, because it’s quite the opposite. However, if you don’t mind artificial flavors, you have more options to choose from.
  • If you’re looking for a pre-workout with other ingredients like creatine or BCAAs you’ll want to check out another pre-workout. 

Promix’s pre-workout contains all-natural ingredients for their flavoring and coloring, and includes some highly regarded pre-workout ingredients like beta-alanine and amino acids, which may lead you to a solid and natural pump.

Best Pre-Workout for Weight Loss

The key to weight loss is consuming fewer calories than you burn, but is there a pre-workout that might offer a little extra help? Again, Transparent Labs is stepping up to the plate.

Disclaimer: Please note that none of these products describe themselves as weight loss supplements and should not be taken as such. Please consult with a medical professional before beginning any weight loss protocol.

Transparent Labs LEAN 

Transparent Labs LEAN has a lot of ingredients that you’ll also find in fat burners. A big one is synephrine, which a couple of studies found may increase the number of calories burned in a given day — an effect that may be enhanced by the hordenine that’s also present in this product. Some of the ingredients may also support thyroid health. Plus, it’s well-dosed with many other mainstay pre-workout ingredients like citrulline, beta-alanine, and theanine to help reduce the jitters from the caffeine.

10% Off
Transparent Labs Lean
Transparent Labs Lean
Transparent Labs Lean

Third-party tested and clearly dosed, Transparent Labs LEAN has a huge variety of ingredients for endurance, power, alertness, and focus. Use code BARBEND10 for 10% off.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs LEAN

  • Those who would like to potentially burn more calories from just ingesting a pre-workout alone.
  • People who avoid artificial ingredients — this product is free of artificial sweeteners and colors.
  • Folks who want four multiple flavors to choose from — this product comes in Green Apple, Sour Grape, Strawberry Lemonade, and Blue Raspberry. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Transparent Labs LEAN

  • For those who prefer big hits of caffeine; 180mg is a little over what you get in a small coffee.

While it’s a bit low in BCAAs, this is still a stand-out pre-workout that’s all-natural and might increase thermogenesis (aka the number of calories you’re burning).

Best Tasting Pre-Workout

A supplement is only helpful if you take it — and if you can’t stand the taste of something, it’s going to be hard to stick to a regimen. If you’re tired of your current pre-workout, or are just starting out and looking for one that tastes great, we recommend you give Promix’s seven all-natural flavors a try. 

Promix Pre-Workout

This pre-workout has a diverse portfolio of flavors to choose from including Lemon, Mixed Berry, Strawberry Lemon, Tingle Free Lemon (no beta-alanine in this flavor), Cherry Lime, Raspberry Lemon, and Stim-Free Raspberry Lemon which contains no added caffeine. All the flavors are derived from all-natural, whole-food sources including turmeric, strawberries, lemon, raspberries, and blueberries. 

The serving of beta-alanine is quite high at 3.2g per serving, which is included to potentially help with endurance. The addition of amino acids as well as a hit of 200mg of caffeine (the equivalent of what’s in two cups of coffee) make up a robust ingredient list that doesn’t compromise on delicious flavor. Promix pre-workout costs $1.00 per serving, making it quite affordable as far as pre-workouts go.

Promix Pre-Workout for Taste
Promix Pre-Workout for Taste
Promix Pre-Workout for Taste

This all-natural pre-workout contains B12, beta-alanine, amino acids L-tyrosine and taurine, and caffeine that may help you get through your toughest workouts and may aid in recovery. It comes in seven delicious flavors and costs $1.00 per serving. 

Who Should Buy Promix Pre-Workout

  • Anyone who has trouble with artificial sweeteners or dyes, as this is naturally sweetened and contains no dyes.
  • Athletes who have trouble getting other pre-workouts down as there are enough flavors available here to satisfy basically anyone — this includes flavor versatility, as well as options for no tingles and a stim-free formula. 
  • People who want classic pre-workout ingredients, such as beta-alanine, amino acids, and caffeine, will like the blend here.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Promix Pre-Workout

  • Anyone who wants a pre-workout with creatine will have to look elsewhere.
  •  If you are someone who doesn’t like the tingly feeling of beta-alanine, this product contains a large dose with 3.2g per serving — you can opt for the Tingle Free Lemon, but that’s the only beta-alanine-free flavor. 

This product is objectively great-tasting, and offers a variety of flavors, such as Strawberry Lemon and Cherry Lime among others — and all seven flavors have all-natural flavoring and coloring. 

Best Pre-Workout Without Caffeine

You don’t need to be bouncing off the walls to have an effective workout. Plenty of gym-goers prefer a pre-workout free of caffeine, and other stimulants that may cause unwanted jitters and a subsequent crash.

Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout

The formulation on this pre-workout combines high-quality sports performance ingredients and antioxidant rich superfoods to make a great product that can help you smash workouts without any stimulants or crash. Combining citrulline malate, beta-alanine, carnitine, pomegranate, betaine, and ginseng can help to optimize your performance and improve recovery.

If you’re looking to kick your workouts up to the next level, but don’t want the caffeine jitters Swolverine PRE is where you should look. It’s made from all natural vegan ingredients, and the Mango Lemonade flavor is sweetened with stevia to taste great too.

Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout
Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout
Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout

Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout may lack stimulants, but it makes up for that with a great blend of high-dosed ingredients to help improve blood flow, recovery, and endurance. The citrulline malate and betaine anhydrous can give you the edge you need to conquer your next gym session.

Who Should Buy Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout

  • Anyone who does not want caffeine or other stimulants in their pre-workout should really appreciate this stim-free formula. 
  • Someone who wants all natural ingredients — especially vegan ingredients. 
  • This product’s label is great for those who like transparent dosing — you know exactly how much of each ingredient you’re ingesting.
  • People who work out later in the day or evening, as this stim-free blend won’t keep you up all night.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout

  • If you don’t like the taste of stevia, or have trouble digesting it, you’ll want to steer clear of this one. 
  • Anyone who wants a stimulant-heavy pre-workout should opt for another product on the list as this is stim-free.

Stimulants aren’t the only game in town for targeting better and more intense workouts. This formula has the right blend of ingredients that can help you get an awesome workout without causing unwanted caffeine jitters.

Best Pre-Workout for Running

Compared to lifting, running requires endurance and stamina. For those reasons, you want a pre-workout that prioritizes ingredients that stimulate long-term energy, focus, and performance. 

Transparent Labs LEAN

Runners chasing more miles and improved focus will prize Transparent Labs’ science-backed ingredient list. This formula notably includes Infinergy™, which is a sustained-release caffeine — this means the energy you can receive from a dose of caffeine should last longer, making it ideal for distance running. There’s also theanine, which when combined with caffeine, can help you remain focused during those long runs. Plus, you’ll find other typical pre-workout ingredients like citrulline, beta-alanine, and betaine. This blend comes in nine flavors, which is a pretty solid variety.

10% Off
Transparent Labs Lean
Transparent Labs Lean
Transparent Labs Lean

Third-party tested and clearly dosed, Transparent Labs LEAN has a huge variety of ingredients for endurance, power, alertness, and focus. Use code BARBEND10 for 10% off.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs LEAN

  • Runners who want to enhance their endurance capabilities and mental focus. 
  • Folks who like ingredients that may help them “focus” during hard runs, as this contains theanine and caffeine. 
  • People who like products backed by research. Transparent Labs explains all of its ingredients on its website. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Transparent Labs LEAN

  • People who don’t love the “tingly” feeling from a lot of beta-alanine. This contains 2,000mg of it.
  • Runners or lifters who don’t want caffeine. There are stim-free formulas available to you. 

Transparent Labs’ thoughtfully designed blend promotes the endurance and energy that runners — both veterans and newbies alike — will appreciate. 

Best Pre-Workout Without Creatine 

You’ll often find creatine in pre-workouts, but if you are already taking it on its own, or have a specific type of it that you prefer (such as creatine HCl over monohydrate), you may not want it in your pre-workout. Here’s a great pre-workout formula that is free of creatine, and easy to stack with your current supplements.

Huge Supplements Wrecked

Although creatine is commonly included in quite a few pre-workouts, many people still reach for one that doesn’t have creatine for one reason or another. Huge Supplements Wrecked produced a great pre-workout just for those people that is packed full of all the other powerful ingredients you could want from a pre-workout.

It has 350mg of caffeine for a potential boost in energy, 3,000mg of betaine that can help with pumps, and 3,500mg of beta-alanine, which can help with endurance, and lactic acid buffering. 

Huge Supplements Wrecked
Huge Supplements Wrecked
Huge Supplements Wrecked

This product packs 18 ingredients at high doses, including 9,000mg of citrulline malate, 3,200mg of beta alanine, 350mg of caffeine, and 2,000mg of betaine anhydrous. Plus, you’ll find 1,000mg of tyrosine and 100mg of Himalayan pink sea salt, as well.

Who Should Buy Huge Supplements Wrecked

  • Someone who has a specific type of creatine that they prefer and works well for them, such as Kre-Alkalyn. Since this pre doesn’t contain creatine, it’s easy to stack with your basic creatine supp. 
  • Someone who wants a stim-heavy pre-workout, as this has 350mg of caffeine, and 3,500mg of beta-alanine.
  • Anyone who is looking for a complete pre-workout — this has 17 ingredients to help with mental focus, energy, blood flow, and pump.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Huge Supplements Wrecked

  • People who don’t take creatine by itself and would rather have it wrapped into their pre-workout. 
  • This pre-workout has 350mg of total caffeine, and if you are sensitive to caffeine, you may want to look elsewhere on this list.

If you’re already taking creatine, you may not need to have it in your pre-workout — if that’s the case, this pre-workout won’t overlap with your current supplement stack

Best Pre-Workout for Beginners

Pre-workout newbies will want a formula that is multifaceted and includes ingredients for focus, a good pump and stamina, and offers a variety of tasty flavors to choose from — we think Kaged does all of these things well.

Kaged Pre-Kaged Pre-Workout

Kaged Pre-Kaged Pre-Workout has a robust ingredient list that focuses on stamina in the gym with ingredients like beta-alanine and betaine. It includes BCAAs leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which may aid in muscle repair after intense workouts. With six and half grams of l-citrulline, this product may also provide a solid pump throughout your workout. Pre-Kaged contains 274mg of caffeine (almost three cups worth of coffee), which may provide energy and focus to help you crush your workout. 

Pre-Kaged Pre-workout comes with 20 servings per container, which makes it a nice option for those who don’t want to over commit to a pre-workout supp or a certain flavor as they work towards adding a new supplement to their daily regimen. This pre-workout comes in Orange Krush, Grape, Berry Blast, Pink Lemonade, Fruit Punch, Krisp Apple, and Cherry Bomb making it versatile in flavor options, as well. At $2.24 per serving, this isn’t our cheapest option, but the stacked ingredient list makes it worth the price tag, in our opinion. 

15% Off
Kaged Pre-Kaged Stim Free
Kaged Pre-Kaged Stim Free
Kaged Pre-Kaged Stim Free

This pre-workout includes BCAAs, taurine, tyrosine, citrulline, and creatine — but it does not contain caffeine. You'll also find coconut water powder, which can help with hydration throughout your workouts. 

Who Should Buy Kaged Pre-Kaged Pre-Workout

  • New pre-workout users who want a robust list of ingredients with different purposes, such as potential boost in focus, stamina, and muscle repair.
  • Anyone who prefers a pre-workout with a heavy dose of caffeine as this supp has 274mg per serving. 
  • People who want a variety of flavors to choose from — this pre-workout has seven unique flavor choices. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Kaged Pre-Kaged Pre-Workout

  • Folks who prefer a pre-workout without caffeine as this doesn’t have any stim-free options. 
  • Athletes on a budget can find cheaper pre-workouts on our list. 
  • Someone looking for a super basic pre-workout can find less extensive ingredient lists elsewhere. 

Kaged Pre-Kaged is a stacked pre-workout that takes a multitude of needs into consideration, including energy, stamina, focus, pump, and muscle growth, which may help any pre-workout novice feel confident in their purchase.

Best Vegan Pre-Workout 

If you’re following a vegan diet, it can be more difficult to find a pre-workout that caters to your dietary restrictions. Plant-based eaters can rest assured that there are pre-workout supps on the market free of any and all animal-based products — this pick is one of the best. 

Transparent Labs BULK

It’s common to see animal products in pre-workouts such as gelatin (used for consistency), lanolin, which is often found in Vitamin D3, and bee pollen (usually touted as a “superfood”). Transparent Labs BULK contains none of these ingredients and instead relies on calcium silicate as an anti-caking agent. Aside from that change, BULK is a standard pre-workout with a research-backed, full-bodied ingredient list to hone focus, bolster endurance, and provide long-lasting energy sans the crash and jitters. However, this product is a little pricier than some others you may find on this list. 

Save 10%
Transparent Labs BULK
Transparent Labs BULK
Transparent Labs BULK

Transparent Labs BULK provides lots of beta-alanine for improved endurance, as well as a slew of ingredients to aid in focus — two key traits for lifters and endurance athletes alike. Plus, it has citrulline, which can help with nitric oxide production.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs BULK

  • Vegans who want a pre-workout that’s completely free of animal products.
  • Anyone who appreciates transparent dosing and proven ingredients.
  • Folks who prefer fruity flavors will like that this pre is available in eight fruit flavors.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Transparent Labs BULK

  • Folks who don’t want to be limited by vegan-only products — there are many pre-workouts that aren’t vegan-friendly.
  • People who want creatine in a pre-workout as this product does not contain creatine. 
  • Those who are watching their wallet may find this pre-workout is a little spendy compared to other products on this list. 

You don’t need to forgo pre-workouts if you’re a vegan, you just need to know what brands ditch animal products in their formulas, and Transparent Labs is one of our top picks. 

Best Thermogenic Pre-Workout

So you’re in a fat loss phase, and you want everything you eat to support that goal? You really just need to be eating the right number of calories and macros, but if you’re curious about thermogenic ingredients like acetyl l-carnitine HCI, consider the following. 

Transparent Labs LEAN

Transparent Labs LEAN is a standard pre-workout formula, offering caffeine, beta-alanine, and citrulline malate, which can help keep you focused, enhance your performance, and boost blood flow. In addition to the tried-and-true ingredients that can help facilitate focus, energy, and pumps, Transparent Labs LEAN contains acetyl l-carnitine HCI, an ingredient that can help transport fatty acids out of the mitochondria to enhance the fat-burning process (2).

There’s also a dose of the black pepper extract, which may bolster the absorption of these ingredients for improved efficacy. On top of that, this comes in eight tasty flavors including Blue Raspberry, Sour Grape, and Strawberry Lemonade. At $1.66 per serving, this pre-workout can be a cost-effective addition to your line up if you’re looking to reach your fat loss goals.

10% Off
Transparent Labs Lean
Transparent Labs Lean
Transparent Labs Lean

Third-party tested and clearly dosed, Transparent Labs LEAN has a huge variety of ingredients for endurance, power, alertness, and focus. Use code BARBEND10 for 10% off.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs LEAN

  • Lifters and/or athletes in a fat loss phase who may want extra assistance losing body fat will appreciate the acetyl l-carnitine HCI here. 
  • Folks looking for a variety of delicious flavors. We really enjoyed the Sour Peach and Grape flavors. 
  • People who want a moderate amount of caffeine. This pick clocks in at 180mg per serving. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Transparent Labs LEAN

  • Lifters who want a stimulant-free pre-workout.
  • People who want extra vitamins, minerals, or supplements like creatine in their pre-workout. 

Transparent Labs LEAN has an excellent reputation on the market — it’s tasty, and it can help perk you up to have a solid workout. And if you’re looking to lose body fat, this pick may help speed up the process thanks to its acetyl l-carnitine HCI.

Best Pre-Workout for Women

Though this is the best pick for women, it’s just well-rounded pre-workout in general. The priorities remain the same for all genders: quality ingredients, effective dosing, and delicious flavors (so you enjoy drinking it). 

Powher Pre-Workout

This pre-workout is a blend of very typical pre-workout ingredients (like citrulline, taurine, beta-alanine, and tyrosine) combined with some more unique ingredients. There’s only 100mg of caffeine, which is a great boost, but not overpowering. And one of the less common ingredients you’ll find here is RedNite — this is a strong beet extract that can help you be more efficient during your strength training.

If you’re looking for extra hydration, Powher also includes 500mg of coconut water powder. This pre comes in a Pink Lemonade flavor that we thought tasted a little more like raspberry, without much of a citrus kick — though we still liked it. 

Powher
Powher
Powher

A relatively low caffeine pre-workout that's a good mixture of established, science-backed ingredients and newer, slightly experimental compounds that could help with performance.

Who Should Buy Powher Pre-Workout

  • Women who want common pre-workout ingredients as well as more unique ones will like the combination here. 
  • If you’re looking for a small boost of caffeine, you’ll like that this pre only contains 100mg. 
  • Those who want to stay hydrated while they exercise will appreciate the coconut water power in this blend. 

Who Shouldn’t Buy Powher Pre-Workout

  • If you want more than 100mg of caffeine, you’ll want to look elsewhere. 
  • Lemonade lovers. If you’re considering this product for the lemonade taste, we tested it for you and found that it tastes much more like raspberry than lemonade. 
  • Athletes who are looking for a straightforward blend with pre-workout basics can find formulas that don’t contain less common ingredients like RedNite. 

For a pre-workout that offers an effective blend of classic pre-workout ingredients and more unique ones, look no further than Powher. This is a well-rounded formula and even offers a kick of coconut water powder for extra hydration. 

When Should I Take Pre-Workout?

As the name implies, you want to take your pre-workout before you train. The general rule is to mix the powder (if you’re taking a powder, not a pill) in four to eight ounces of water and ingest it 20 to 30 minutes before training. This amount of time allows the ingredients — like caffeine, beta-alanine, and taurine — to absorb and start taking effect.

A person jumps rope in the gym while wearing headphones.
Credit: Flamingo Images / Shutterstock

If you train at night, you may want to steer clear of caffeinated pre-workouts. Some of these supps contain 150mg minimum of caffeine, with certain products packing 250mg or more. Of course, the choice is yours, but you’ll risk disrupting your sleep. Night owls may want to opt for a stim-free pre-workout.

How Much Do Pre-Workouts Cost?

The price of a pre-workout varies, though not significantly, primarily based on A) the ingredients used, and B) the dose of those ingredients. Products that prioritize transparent dosing — meaning the ingredients aren’t wrapped up in obscure blends — are typically going to be pricier. The reason being that you’re actually getting that ingredient and in a relatively complete dose.

Nowadays, most brands give you the full scoop on dosing. The number of ingredients also affects the price. A product that has creatine in addition to basic pre-workout ingredients, for example, will almost always carry a higher price tag. Supplements with added vitamins and nutrients, also jack up the price a bit.

Best Pre-Workout Overall Huge Supplements Wrecked $49.95

Per Serving: $2.49

Best Pre-Workout for Muscle Gain Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout $54.99

Per Serving: $2.19

Strongest Pre-Workout Huge Supplements Wrecked $49.95

Per Serving: $2.00

Best Pre-Workout for Men Promix Pre-Workout $29.00

Per Serving: $0.96

Best Pre-Workout for Pump Huge Supplements Wrecked $49.95

Per Serving: $2.00

Best All-Natural Pre-Workout Promix Pre-Workout $29.00

Per Serving: $0.96

Best Pre-Workout for Weight Loss Transparent Labs LEAN $49.99 

Per Serving: $1.66

Best Tasting Pre-Workout Promix Pre-Workout $29.00

Per Serving: $0.96

Best Pre-Workout Without Caffeine Swolverine PRE Pre-Workout $52.99

Per Serving: $2.11

Best Pre-Workout for Running Transparent Labs LEAN $49.99 

Per Serving: $1.66

Best Pre-Workout without Creatine Huge Supplements Wrecked $49.95

Per Serving: $2.00

Best Pre-Workout for Beginners Kaged Pre-Kaged Pre-Workout $44.95

Per Serving: $2.24

Best Vegan Pre-Workout Transparent Labs BULK $49.00

Per Serving: $1.63

Best Thermogenic Pre-Workout Transparent Labs LEAN $49.99

Per Serving: $1.66

Best Pre-Workout Without Creatine Huge Supplements Wrecked $49.95

Per Serving: $2.00

That said: You need to know what you want out of a pre-workout. If you’re looking for a little energy, then a basic pick with ample caffeine will do the job (and probably for less money). If you want the full kit — pumps, energy, focus, and hydrating minerals — then know you’ll shell out more.

When considering the price of pre-workouts you’ll want to look at the price of the container in unison with the number of servings you’re getting, rather than just the price of the container as a whole. The pre-workouts on this list range from $1.23 per serving to as high as $1.97.

The Benefits of Pre-Workouts

The first thing people tend to associate with pre-workouts are their stimulative effects, which can affect just about every part of a workout. Obviously, caffeine (often the primary ingredient in pre-workouts) is known as a stimulant, but it is also linked to better power, endurance, perceived exertion, and even cognition. (3)(4)(5) For example, a randomized, double-blind study published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise found that when compared to a placebo, 10 athletes improved their speed, reaction time, movement time, and decision-making time when supplementing with caffeine. (6)

For reference, a small cup of coffee has about 100 milligrams of caffeine, and pre-workouts range from 80 to as much as 350 milligrams per serving.

But again, a pre-workout supplement isn’t just caffeine (though, some people do just take caffeine before a workout). Some pre-workouts are formulated without it. The most common additions include beta-alanine for endurance, citrulline for blood flow, betaine for power, and tyrosine for focus. All these ingredients will give you an extra boost that can help you get the most out of your training.

hill sprints
Image from ShutterStock/sportpoint

Those ingredients have relatively solid research behind them. For example, a hugely popular meta-analysis published in Amino Acids of 15 studies found that beta-alanine reliably increases muscular endurance. (7)(8) With regard to betaine, two studies published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition have shown significant power increases in the back squat among men who took 1.25 grams of it twice a day for two weeks. (9)(10)

Plenty of pre-workouts contain unusual plant ingredients — like toothed clubmoss or hawthorn berry — which don’t have the most convincing body of evidence supporting their abilities to improve performance.

When judging the effectiveness of a pre-workout, we didn’t disqualify anything that had a questionable ingredient. Rather, we looked at the overall impact of the product. Even if a product contains a couple of not-so-science-backed inclusions, we still consider it reputable if there are enough quality, well-dosed ingredients.

How We Decide Our Picks

We tried a lot of pre-workouts (and hit a lot of PRs) while landing on this list. Here are the criteria we looked at. Note that these aren’t necessarily deal-breakers — some products are on the pricey side, for example, but the ingredient list justifies it. 

Value

Most pre-workouts cost between $1.00 and $2.00 per serving. Plenty are more expensive, and usually, the price is justified, but over a dollar per serving counts as “you should know this is pricey” territory.

Transparency

A considerable number of pre-workouts consist of proprietary blends — you know the ingredients but not the amounts that are provided. That means you won’t know exactly what’s effective and what’s not. Now, legally, they have to order the components by weight, so you can usually get a decent guess at the dose, and proprietary blends are so prominent in the industry that we didn’t outright disqualify a product that has one, but it definitely loses points for lack of transparency. We also chose some products for this list specifically because of their transparency.

Dosage

On a related note, scores of pre-workouts take research-backed ingredients but don’t use research-backed doses. For example, citrulline needs to be 5 grams or more. We know the research front and back, so we can assess how effective a dose is. (Note that sometimes, as is the case with tyrosine, we don’t really know the minimum dosage, but we can make an educated guess.) For the most part, we have only included picks on this list that contain the proper dosage for their ingredients.

Testing

Some companies will employ a third party, like Informed Choice, Informed Sport, or NSF, to test their products (or their facility) for substances in the World Anti-Doping Agency. Many athletes will only take third-party tested products, particularly since questionable pre-workouts can be the ones that produce positive results.

What’s In Your Pre-Workout?

Not all pre-workout ingredients are useful. Here’s a rundown of the ingredients that you’ll usually find and want in your pre-workout.

Caffeine

Caffeine is associated with alertness, endurance, power output, strength, and perceived exertion. The FDA puts one small cup of coffee at 100 milligrams of caffeine, while a tall (355ml) coffee from Starbucks has about 235 milligrams. Pre-workouts typically contain anywhere from 80 to 350mg of caffeine.

Creatine

The best researched ergogenic aid besides caffeine, creatine helps power output, anaerobic capacity, and fatigue, all while increasing muscle size by drawing more water into them. It doesn’t have to be taken with pre-workout, it’s an any-time supplement — the point is to increase the creatine in your muscles over time, rather than loading creatine quickly. The dose is five to 10 grams a day, and if you’re consistent, you’ll see the best results. (11)

Beta-Alanine

Beta-alanine is linked to improved endurance, both in cardio-focused workouts and strength training with higher reps (as in over eight per set). Because it allows you to endure more, it may help with hypertrophy. The standard dose is 1.6 to 3.2 grams. (12)

Citrulline

Research suggests that five or so grams of citrulline, an amino acid that’s high in watermelons, may help with circulation and thereby improve most areas of performance, from endurance to power output. (13)

Betaine Anhydrous

Found in beets and leafy greens, betaine is best known for links to power output and muscular endurance, but it might also slightly decrease post-exercise cortisol, which can actually be helpful in your body’s response to stress. (14

Taurine

When paired with caffeine, taurine may help with improving focus. Since it might draw water into cells, it may enhance recovery and muscle cramps, as well. The dose is one to two grams. (15)

Tyrosine

Also used for “focus,” data suggests tyrosine can reduce stress during, particularly acute stress — like exercise — by helping you produce adrenaline and dopamine. Research has only been performed on people taking at least 5 grams, and a minimum effective dose hasn’t been established, but look for at least 500 milligrams. (16)

What to Consider Before Buying

These sorts of products can make some folks a little concerned about side effects and unintended consequences. They’re legal, so the potential for damage is low, but there are some things worth keeping in mind.

Caffeine Is a Drug

Caffeine is a real drug. It can cause anxiety, diarrhea, and maybe even temporary high blood pressure. Caffeine isn’t inherently bad for you. Rather, everyone has a different tolerance for caffeine. Caffeine can make it harder for the nervous system to relax or enter a parasympathetic state conducive to recovery. It’s not a bad idea to take a week off from caffeine every couple of months to keep you from building up too strong a tolerance for it.

Beta-Alanine Has a Surprising Side Effect

Perhaps the most common pre-workout ingredient that isn’t caffeine (or flavoring), beta-alanine typically causes paresthesia, a “tingling” sensation on the skin. It’s temporary and harmless, and while some love the feeling of the ingredient “kicking in,” not everyone likes it.

Not All Pre-Workout Ingredients Need to Be Pre-Workout

Creatine and beta-alanine don’t have to be taken right before a workout. If you take them every day, they’ll imbue you with their benefits regardless of the time of day you take them.

One of the Best Pre-Workouts Is Carbohydrates

It’s not sexy, but it’s pretty tough to have a great workout without plenty of carbs in your system. A balanced meal of protein and carbs a couple of hours before a workout can do wonders for performance. (17)

Remember the Dosage

We’ve already noted the best-supported dosages in the previous section, “What’s In Your Pre-Workout?” Many products will talk a big game about how well-supported their ingredients are, but then use low dosages. (This is especially common with citrulline and tyrosine.) It’s good to look at the research before you make a purchase.

Chat with a Doctor

Especially if you have any pre-existing conditions, but even if you don’t, speak with a physician before making changes to your diet or supplement regimen.

The Scoop on Dry Scooping

Social media stars on platforms like TikTok and Instagram have started a trend known as dry-scooping — where you scoop pre-workout powder directly into your mouth. This is ill-advised and dangerous. 

Many pre-workouts have hundreds of milligrams of caffeine in them, and diluting that powder into water allows your body more time to absorb and process it. Otherwise, you risk absorbing too much caffeine too quickly, which can lead to jitters, an upset stomach, an elevated heart rate, and, in extreme cases, caffeine poisoning. One woman who dry-scooped suffered a heart attack

You can also choke on the powder. There’s a reason the directions on pre-workout powders tell you to mix it in water. (18

Final Word

If you’re engaged in sport, supplements can be super helpful. They can increase the amount of energy you have and the effectiveness of the exercise. We’ve tried dozens of pre-workouts to land on this list of the best pre-workout supplements on the market for almost any athlete, whether you love or hate caffeine, want to improve your run time, or just get a better pump.

We looked at the price, taste, ingredients, and effectiveness of every one of these supplements. While plenty of people have different ideas about what constitutes a “quality” pre-workout, we think we’ve put together a tremendous guide to picking the best pre-workout supplements for a variety of fitness goals. 

FAQs

What does a pre workout do?

It depends on what’s in the pre-workout, but ingredients like caffeine, beta-alanine, and betaine have been linked to higher energy levels, better power production, and improved endurance. Some ingredients, like tyrosine and taurine, may even improve focus.

How much caffeine is in a pre workout?

It depends on which brand, but the average pre-workout contains between 200 and 250 milligrams of caffeine. That’s about as much as you’ll find in a Grande coffee from Starbucks — 473mL of the Dark Roast, to be precise. The USDA puts a small, 8oz (236mL) cup of coffee at about 100 milligrams of caffeine.

Note that many pre-workouts go as high as 350 to 400 milligrams of caffeine, while some (especially those aimed at women) can drop under 150 or even 100 milligrams.

Is pre workout bad for you?

Nothing on the ingredients list of a pre-workout is illegal, but they’re also not regulated by the FDA. This is why many prefer pre-workouts that have been certified by third party testing companies for banned substances, like Informed Choice or NSF.

But of the various ingredients, one will find in pre-workouts, caffeine is the one most likely to cause issues, as very high doses can cause anxiety, high blood pressure, cramps, and other issues. But if you keep the caffeine content to something you’re comfortable with, pre-workouts can be a nice boost.

Is it better to drink pre workout before or during workout?

It’s best to drink your pre-workout before going to the gym, as it can take a good thirty minutes to “kick in.” For optimal results, and if you’re in a hurry, it may be best to take pre-workout on an empty stomach so that it digests quickly.

References

  1. Margalit I, Cohen E, Goldberg E, Krause I. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and the Role of Gender: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Large Cohort. Ann Nutr Metab. 2018;72(4):265-271. doi: 10.1159/000488326. Epub 2018 Mar 29. PMID: 29597190.
  2. Brass EP. Supplemental carnitine and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):618S-23S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/72.2.618S. PMID: 10919968.
  3. Childs E, de Wit H. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 May;185(4):514-23. doi: 10.1007/s00213-006-0341-3. Epub 2006 Mar 16. PMID: 16541243.
  4. Smillie LD, Gökçen E. Caffeine enhances working memory for extraverts. Biol Psychol. 2010 Dec;85(3):496-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.08.012. Epub 2010 Sep 15. PMID: 20816912.
  5. Mednick SC, Cai DJ, Kanady J, Drummond SP. Comparing the benefits of caffeine, naps and placebo on verbal, motor and perceptual memory. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Nov 3;193(1):79-86. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.04.028. Epub 2008 May 8. PMID: 18554731; PMCID: PMC2603066.
  6. Duvnjak-Zaknich DM, Dawson BT, Wallman KE, Henry G. Effect of caffeine on reactive agility time when fresh and fatigued. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Aug;43(8):1523-30. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821048ab. PMID: 21266929.
  7. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25-37. doi: 10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z. Epub 2012 Jan 24. PMID: 22270875; PMCID: PMC3374095.
  8. Hipkiss AR. On the enigma of carnosine’s anti-ageing actions. Exp Gerontol. 2009 Apr;44(4):237-42. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2008.11.001. Epub 2008 Nov 11. PMID: 19041712.
  9. Lee EC, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, Yamamoto LM, Hatfield DL, Bailey BL, Armstrong LE, Volek JS, McDermott BP, Craig SA. Ergogenic effects of betaine supplementation on strength and power performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jul 19;7:27. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-27. PMID: 20642826; PMCID: PMC2915951.
  10. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Rashti SL, Faigenbaum AD. Effect of betaine supplementation on power performance and fatigue. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 27;6:7. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-6-7. PMID: 19250531; PMCID: PMC2651845.
  11. Gann JJ, McKinley-Barnard SK, Andre TL, Schoch RD, Willoughby DS. Effects of a traditionally-dosed creatine supplementation protocol and resistance training on the skeletal muscle uptake and whole-body metabolism and retention of creatine in males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Sep 21;12(Suppl 1):P2. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P2. PMCID: PMC4594933.
  12. Bellinger PM. β-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jun;28(6):1751-70. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000327. PMID: 24276304.
  13. Gonzalez AM, Trexler ET. Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Humans: A Review of the Current Literature. J Strength Cond Res. 2020 May;34(5):1480-1495. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003426. PMID: 31977835.
  14. Cholewa JM, Wyszczelska-Rokiel M, Glowacki R, Jakubowski H, Matthews T, Wood R, Craig SA, Paolone V. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Aug 22;10(1):39. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-39. PMID: 23967897; PMCID: PMC3844502.
  15. McLeay Y, Stannard S, Barnes M. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males. Antioxidants (Basel). 2017 Oct 17;6(4):79. doi: 10.3390/antiox6040079. PMID: 29039798; PMCID: PMC5745489.
  16.  Jongkees BJ, Hommel B, Kühn S, Colzato LS. Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands–A review. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Nov;70:50-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.08.014. Epub 2015 Aug 25. PMID: 26424423.
  17. Ormsbee MJ, Bach CW, Baur DA. Pre-exercise nutrition: the role of macronutrients, modified starches and supplements on metabolism and endurance performance. Nutrients. 2014 Apr 29;6(5):1782-808. doi: 10.3390/nu6051782. PMID: 24787031; PMCID: PMC4042570.
  18. Dry scooping can be life-threatening. Get Poison Control Help Online or Call 1-800-222-1222. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.poison.org/articles/dry-scooping-can-be-life-threatening.