Best Beta-Alanine Supplements For Purity, Pre-Workout, and More

Improve endurance and strength with these beta-alanine supplements.

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If you’re a big fan of pre-workout supplements, you’ve likely run across beta-alanine. One of the most common pre-workout ingredients, beta-alanine is a naturally occurring beta-amino acid that your body produces on its own. But just because your body makes it doesn’t mean a supplement is worth nothing. Why? Because research has shown that supplementing with beta-alanine might be able to help you perform better in the gym. (1)

Studies have linked beta-alanine to a decrease in perceived exertion during training, which means that it might help you work out longer. (2) By potentially helping to increase your exercise capacity, beta-alanine supplementation may be able to help you work harder and recover better. (3)(4) If you continue programming your training and recovery well, increasing your work capacity and exercise volume could potentially lead to more overload and growth adaptations

When a product is this popular, it’s hard to decide on a particular brand. That’s why we built this list with some of our favorite beta-alanine supplements on the market.

Best Beta-Alanine Supplements

Editor’s note: The content on BarBend is meant to be informative in nature, but it should not be taken as medical advice. The opinions and articles on this site are not intended for use as diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment of health problems. It’s always a good idea to talk to your doctor before beginning a new fitness, nutritional, and/or supplement routine. Individual needs for vitamins and minerals will vary.

Best Beta-Alanine Overall

If you’re looking for the best of the best in beta-alanine supplementation, you don’t have to look very far. Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine packs five grams of beta-alanine into each serving — and with 100 servings per container, it’s well-worth the investment.

Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

The beta-alanine found in Swolverine’s product is in the form of CarnoSyn®, which is a patented powder that has achieved New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) status with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For a product to be an NDI, it could not have been marketed as a dietary supplement in the United States before Oct. 15, 1994.

Carnosyn is so-named because beta-alanine has been shown to increase the carnosine concentration in people’s muscles. (5) And since carnosine is partly responsible for helping your muscles avoid acid buildup during exercise, research suggests that beta-alanine can help delay the onset of fatigue in your muscles during intense exercise. (5)

Each serving of Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine contains five grams of beta-alanine through carnosyn — and that’s it. There are no additives, fillers, or preservatives clunking up your experience. And since each container comes with 100 servings, you’ll be well-stocked for quite awhile.

10% Off
Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine
Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine
Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

When you need pure beta-alanine and nothing else, Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine provides five solid grams per serving. Plus, it offers up 100 servings per container.

Who Should Buy Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

  • Athletes who only want a high dose of beta-alanine per serving will appreciate that this product features five grams per serving.
  • If you don’t want to worry about restocking very often, this supp includes 100 servings per container.
  • Folks that want to make sure there are no additives or fillers in their supplements will love that this product only has one ingredient.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

  • Anyone looking to get their beta-alanine in the form of a pre-workout might want a product with more ingredients.
  • If you need your supplement powders to be flavored to help it go down, you may want to look for something other than this unflavored version.
  • People looking to take their beta-alanine in capsule-form will want to invest in a non-powder beta-alanine supp.

If you’ve been on the hunt for the best beta-alanine supplement out there, your search can end with Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine. With five grams of the good stuff per serving, you’ll be getting a high dose of your supplement, to the tune of 100 servings per container.

Best Pre-Workout With Beta-Alanine

Many people crave the tingles that beta-alanine provides in a pre-workout supplement. For those folks, this pre-workout is dosed with plenty of beta-alanine, in addition to other useful ingredients to ensure your workout is optimal. 

Transparent Labs BULK

This pre-workout contains 12 ingredients, all geared towards focus, pumps, and energy. It includes 6,000mg of citrulline malate and 4,000mg of BCAAs in a 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which is generally considered the ideal BCAA ratio. BCAAs can help improve strength and recovery rates, while citrulline malate can potentially help you metabolize nitric oxide — this may be able to help improve your performance during high-intensity activities like cycling. (6)(7)(8)

But that doesn’t mean that beta-alanine gets short-changed amidst all those other ingredients. There are four grams of beta-alanine per serving, which is pretty on par with products that only contain beta-alanine.

This pre-workout also has 210 milligrams of caffeine. The kick is delivered by 180mg of caffeine anhydrous and 30mg of dicaffeine malate, which is a buffered — and therefore less acidic — version of caffeine that you might like if your stomach is sensitive to acid.

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Transparent Labs BULK
Transparent Labs BULK
Transparent Labs BULK

Transparent Labs BULK provides lots of beta-alanine for improved endurance, as well as a slew of ingredients to aid in focus — two key traits for runners. Use code BARBEND10 to save 10%.

Who Should Buy Transparent Labs BULK

  • Anyone who values the lack of artificial additives in their supplements will like that there aren’t any artificial sweeteners, colorings, or preservatives in this product.
  • Athletes looking for a complete pre-workout supplement with beta-alanine in it will appreciate the combination of ingredients here.
  • If you want beta-alanine with flavoring, this pre-workout comes in seven different flavors: Watermelon, Tropical Punch, Sour Grape, Green Apple, Blue Raspberry, Orange, and Strawberry Lemonade.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Transparent Labs BULK

  • People uncomfortable with a natural tingling sensation that could be caused by beta-alanine may want to avoid it in their pre-workout.
  • Budget-conscious athletes might want to seek out other products, as this pre-workout only contains 30 servings per container.
  • Folks sensitive to caffeine may want to look elsewhere, as this pre-workout has 210mg. 

If you want your beta-alanine with a dose of both flavor and pre-workout, Transparent Labs BULK can help you get both your beta-alanine and your goals.

[Related: Could Baking Soda Be The Best Workout Supplement You’ve Never Tried?]

Best Bulk Beta-Alanine

If you want a quality beta-alanine supplement that also makes sense for your wallet and shopping schedule, you might want to consider buying in bulk. In that case, you’ll want to turn to Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine, which contains five grams per serving — and comes loaded with 100 servings per container.

Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

As the name suggests, bulk supplements specialize in selling their products in bulk — you may spend a bit more upfront, but your money will get the most mileage when you’re paying for a lot all at once. And buying in bulk doesn’t mean buying into impure or low-quality products.

Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine may be no-frills, but that might be exactly what you’re looking for when you want to add beta-alanine to your supplement routine. This product contains no artificial sweeteners, flavors, or additives, so you’ll only be getting the stuff you want.

Each container will cost you just under $60, and comes with 100 servings of five grams each. This means that you’ll be paying about $0.49 per serving, which is definitely a bulk price. Plus, you won’t have to think about restocking as often as you would with a product that comes with fewer servings per container.

10% Off
Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine
Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine
Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

When you need pure beta-alanine and nothing else, Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine provides five solid grams per serving. Plus, it offers up 100 servings per container.

Who Should Buy Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

  • Anyone looking for a very simple product with simple, straightforward ingredients will appreciate this single-ingredient supplement.
  • Athletes on a budget who want to purchase their supplements in bulk will love that each serving comes out to around $0.49.
  • Busy folks who don’t want to worry about restocking often will like that each container comes with 100 servings.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

  • Anyone who’s looking for a beta-alanine that comes included in a pre-workout or combined with other ingredients might want to look for a different supplement.
  • Athletes who enjoy flavor with their supplement powders might prefer to look elsewhere, as this product is unflavored.
  • Folks who prefer to take their supplements via a capsule might not love that this product is a powder.

If you want the best bang for your buck without sacrificing grams per serving or the simplicity of ingredients, Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine might just be the bulk product for you.

[Related: The Best Types Of Supplements For Performance, Weight Loss, and Health]

Best Pure Beta-Alanine

You might decide that you want a beta-alanine supplement that comes with all the bells and whistles of a pre-workout or a more all-inclusive supplement — more power to you. But if you’re just looking for a simple, pure beta-alanine supplement, Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine is a solid choice.

Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

When you invest in Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine, you’ll be getting five grams of beta-alanine per serving. And with 100 servings per container, you won’t have to worry about restocking quite as often as you might with other competitors. Plus, if you’re a consumer who spends a lot of time thinking about the ingredient purity of their supplements, that’s not even the best part.

The best part may well be that Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine contains no additives at all — no sugar, soy, dairy, gluten, or anything else. So if you’re looking for pure beta-alanine without anything added, this product will likely tick the right boxes for you. You won’t find any flavors in this powder, and there won’t be anything artificial — just pure beta-alanine.

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Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine
Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine
Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

When you need pure beta-alanine and nothing else, Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine provides five solid grams per serving. Plus, it offers up 100 servings per container.

Who Should Buy Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

  • Folks who value a product with no additives or fillers will love that this is just pure beta-alanine.
  • Athletes who are looking for the most bang for their buck will appreciate that each container comes with 100 servings.
  • If you’re looking for a high dose of beta-alanine, you’ll like that each serving contains five grams.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine

  • Athletes who like their supplement powders to come with fun flavors may be disappointed that this product is unflavored.
  • Folks who prefer to take their supplements in pill form may prefer a capsule over powder.
  • If you want to take your beta-alanine along with your pre-workout, you might opt for a product that combines them for you.

Swolverine Carnosyn Beta-Alanine gives you exactly what you might be looking for in a beta-alanine supplement — pure beta-alanine, and nothing else. 

Best Beta-Alanine Pills

For those who want a more portable form of beta-alanine that you can bring to the gym or on the go, NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules are supplement pills you can bring anywhere — without the potential mess from a powder scooper.

NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules

If you’re the kind of person who can’t stand taking your supplements in powder form, NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules might be a winner for you. These pills are vegetarian and vegan-friendly — instead of being made with gelatin, the capsules are held together by hypromellose, a plant-based cellulose. The capsules are also Kosher-certified and GMO-free.

Each container comes with 120 capsules, and you have to take three capsules to get a full serving. That means that there are 40 servings per container, which is still more than some competitors. Each serving contains 2.25 grams of beta-alanine, which comes in the form of CarnoSyn®. 

NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules
NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules
NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules

A well dosed, vegan friendly capsule that's third party tested to ensure purity and label accuracy, this supplement contains 2.25 grams of beta-alanine — which comes in the form of CarnoSyn — per serving.

Who Should Buy NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules

  • Athletes who are vegan, vegetarian, or want to avoid animal products in their supplements will appreciate that this capsule is made of cellulose, not gelatin.
  • Anyone who prefers taking a pill rather than having to mix powder will like the mess-free, portable nature of these capsules.
  • If you’re looking to take beta-alanine in lower doses, you’ll probably like that this product contains 2.25 grams of beta-alanine per serving.

Who Shouldn’t Buy NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules

  • Anyone who doesn’t want to consume rice flour and other fillers may opt for a product with fewer ingredients.
  • Athletes who don’t like swallowing pills or capsules might prefer beta-alanine in a powder form.
  • Folks who want a higher dose of beta-alanine might be disappointed that you need to take three capsules just to get 2.25 grams of beta-alanine.

For athletes who are all about supplements but prefer to avoid powder, NOW Sports Beta-Alanine Capsules eliminates the potential mess and grittiness of beta-alanine powder.

[Related: Intermittent Fasting 101: A Guide To Benefits, Muscle Gain, And More]

Best Beta-Alanine With Creatine

If you’re really looking to maximize your gains, you might opt to take your beta-alanine with creatine. Creatine monohydrate is a common supplement for athletes to turn to when they want to boost their energy during intense workouts. (9) Neoforce Performance Creaforce gives you both creatine and beta-alanine at once.

Neoforce Performance Creaforce

Research suggests that taking both beta-alanine and creatine may be more effective at improving performance, muscle growth, and delaying fatigue than taking either of the supplements on their own. (10)(11

Because of research like this, you might decide that you want to take beta-alanine and creatine at the same time and ask — why bother buying two separate products? Enter Neoforce Performance Creaforce.

You can choose between an unflavored package or Blue Raspberry, both of which offer 2,500mg grams of creatine and 1,600mg of beta-alanine per serving. The flavored version also contains citric acid, sucralose, and both natural and artificial flavorings, as well as blue dye. 

Neoforce Performance Creaforce
Neoforce Performance Creaforce
Neoforce Performance Creaforce

An effective combination of both creatine and beta-alanine that's available in several tasty flavors, Neoforce Performance Creaforce contains 2,500mg grams of creatine and 1,600mg of beta-alanine per serving.

Who Should Buy Neoforce Performance Creaforce

  • Anyone who wants to take their beta-alanine alongside creatine will love that this product contains both.
  • Athletes who don’t need or want such high doses of beta-alanine will appreciate that each serving of this product only contains 1.6 grams.
  • If you want both flavored and unflavored options for your beta-alanine and creatine needs, Neoforce Performance Creaforce offers both unflavored and Blue Raspberry.

Who Shouldn’t Buy Neoforce Performance Creaforce

  • People aiming to dodge artificial sweeteners will likely want to avoid the Blue Raspberry version.
  • If you’re looking for a higher dose of creatine, beta-alanine, or both, you might want to look for products with higher doses than 2.5 grams of creatine and 1.6 grams of beta-alanine.

When you want both creatine and beta-alanine, but don’t want to worry about buying and using the two supplements separately, Neoforce Performance Creaforce will give you both products at once.

[Related: Best Macros Calculator For Tracking Muscle Gain And Fat Loss]

Benefits of Beta-Alanine

If you’re the type of athlete that loves going hard in the gym, you know how important it is to not run out of gas mid-set. Enter beta-alanine, which might be able to help you feel like you have more endurance by possibly fighting fatigue at a cellular level. (3

Improve Endurance

Beta-alanine is a naturally-occurring beta-amino acid and a building block of carnosine, which seems to help buffer acid in muscles. (12) What that means is beta-alanine may help neutralize the acid in the body. This can be significant to athletes because during intense exercise, processes that help to rapidly provide energy can also cause pH to drop, acidity to increase, and muscles to fatigue. (13)(14) Beta-alanine seems to mitigate this effect.

Possibly fighting fatigue and therefore potentially helping to improve endurance during exercise is perhaps the most popular reason people seek out beta-alanine supplements. There is research that suggests that beta-alanine can potentially help to improve sprinting speed by three percent, VO2 max by over ten percent, and improve strength workouts in the eight to 15 rep range. (15)(16)(17)

More Muscle

Limited evidence suggests that beta-alanine might have a “hypertrophic” effect — that it increases muscle and decreases body fat. (17)(18)(19) This may be because the people taking it are able to handle more exercise than they would have without it, so the mechanism is a little unclear. But either way, it seems that beta-alanine may be able to help you well on your way toward certain body composition goals.

[Related: Nutrition For Bulking: 10 Tips For Intelligent Muscle Gain]

Anti-Aging Benefits

Beta-alanine increases the amount of carnosine in the body, which is an antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress and combats free radicals that contribute to some components of the aging process. (20)(21)(22) Carnosine also appears to increase nitric oxide production, which may improve heart health. (23)

How We Chose the Best Beta-Alanine

As with any supplement, the quality of the supplement itself — as well as what other ingredients are included in it — are influential factors in deciding which supps are the best. Here is what influenced our choices.

Third-Party Testing

All things being equal, an overwhelming majority of customers will likely desire better quality ingredients in their supplements — and for good reason. If you’re performing high-quality workouts, you want your supplements to match that quality.

There are several third-party testing services that can clear a product for having no banned substances or other impurities in its ingredients. If a company goes out of their way to get their product third-party tested, they will most likely share that information — and if a product was graded well by a third-party testing service for its ingredients, then it was given more points in our scoring system.

Additional Ingredients

In this case, additional ingredients are considered anything beyond the beta-alanine itself. You might want a beta-alanine supplement that includes other supplements (as in a pre-workout), or one that tastes great because of sweeteners.

If a product claims itself as a beta-alanine product combination but contains other ingredients, we took that into account and compared it to similar items across the market. For example, if a product claims to be a creatine plus beta-alanine supplement, then we graded it against other similar products harder than against products that were just beta-alanine. Conversely, for products that just contain beta-alanine, we ranked them against other products that only have that one ingredient.

This helped us find what we think are the better picks when it comes to flavored supplements and combination supplements, and you will see that spread reflected in our top picks.

[Related: The Lifter’s Guide To Magnesium: What This Nutrient Does For Strength]

What To Consider Before Buying Beta-Alanine

As with pretty much everything in fitness, your choices in the gym and in the kitchen are based on what you need personally. For example, you might want your beta-alanine to be as pure as can be if it’s one of the only supplements you want to take. Or, you might want a lower dose but to have it combined with another supp, like creatine. Whatever the case, here are some of the factors to consider before investing in beta-alanine.

Dose

The beta-alanine supplements on this list range in dosage from 1.6 grams per serving to five grams per serving. There is no “right” answer for determining the right dose for you, but — as with most supplements — it might be beneficial to start on the lower end of the dosing spectrum and increase gradually if desired. Studies have included doses ranging between four and six grams of beta-alanine, which seems to be safe. (17

Another thing to consider regarding dosing: Beta-alanine is well-known for producing paresthesia, a “tingling” sensation on the skin. It doesn’t happen to everybody and it’s harmless, but some find it unpleasant. (24) This sensation may be avoided by taking smaller doses throughout the day instead of one large dose — this might mean taking smaller scoops of a powder, or taking only one pill at a time of a three-capsule serving.

Ingredients

In addition to considerations about dose and serving size, you’ll want to consider what other ingredients are included in your beta-alanine supplement. That might mean thinking about additives like sweeteners or other forms of flavoring, but it might also involve thinking about whether you’re looking to take beta-alanine on its own or in conjunction with other supplements.

Some evidence has suggested that combining beta-alanine with creatine may be more effective for increasing strength and body composition than taking either supplement alone. (11) Not every study agrees with this, but it’s worth considering taking both supplements together (though it’s not necessary to take them at the same time). (25) You may also decide that you want to include beta-alanine in your pre-workout, so keep an eye on what ingredients the pre-workout has if there’s anything you specifically want or want to avoid.

Final Word

When you’re working hard in the gym, it’s understandable to want a little kick in the supplement department to help maximize your gains. When you’re looking for as many tools as possible to conquer a workout, it’s worth considering beta-alanine.

Athletes who want to limit fatigue and maximize endurance during workouts may be able to benefit from adding beta-alanine into their supplement routine. You might choose to add only beta-alanine in its purest form by taking a few capsules or tossing some powder into your shake. Or, you might decide that you want beta-alanine added into your pre-workout or creatine powder. Whatever you decide, adding beta-alanine to your supplement routine can be a plus.

Whether your main goal is fighting fatigue during exhausting training sessions or adding volume to your routine in the interest of building muscle, there are excellent beta-alanine supplements out there for you.

FAQs

Is it better to take beta-alanine as a powder or capsule?

This really depends on your personal preference. If you absolutely hate taking pills, you might want to opt for powder. On the flip side, if powder is too messy, too gritty, or just too much hassle for you, go for a pill option.

Should I take beta-alanine alone or with my pre-workout?

Again, this is a personal preference. If you don’t typically take a pre-workout, there’s no need to invest in one just so you can get your beta-alanine in. It’s okay to take beta-alanine on its own, much like you might take creatine on its own.

On the other hand, if you like taking pre-workout and want to include beta-alanine in your routine, it might be helpful to take a pre-workout that already includes it so that you don’t have to mix even more powder into your drink.

Is the tingling sensation you get from beta-alanine harmful?

No, paresthesia is not inherently harmful. However, some may not like it, and if that’s the case, you may want to lower your dose or skip beta-alanine altogether.

References

  1. Maté-Muñoz, J.L., Lougedo, J.H., Garnacho-Castaño, M.V. et al. Effects of β-alanine supplementation during a 5-week strength training program: a randomized, controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 15, 19 (2018). 
  2. Berti Zanella P, Donner Alves F, Guerini de Souza C. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and muscle fatigue in athletes and non-athletes of different sports: a systematic review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2017 Sep;57(9):1132-1141.
  3. Furst T, Massaro A, Miller C, Williams BT, LaMacchia ZM, Horvath PJ. β-Alanine supplementation increased physical performance and improved executive function following endurance exercise in middle aged individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Jul 11;15(1):32.
  4. Saunders B, DE Salles Painelli V, DE Oliveira LF, DA Eira Silva V, DA Silva RP, Riani L, Franchi M, Gonçalves LS, Harris RC, Roschel H, Artioli GG, Sale C, Gualano B. Twenty-four Weeks of β-Alanine Supplementation on Carnosine Content, Related Genes, and Exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 May;49(5):896-906.
  5. Culbertson JY, Kreider RB, Greenwood M, Cooke M. Effects of beta-alanine on muscle carnosine and exercise performance: a review of the current literature. Nutrients. 2010;2(1):75-98.
  6. Howatson G, Hoad M, Goodall S, Tallent J, Bell PG, French DN. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Jul 12;9:20.
  7. Wylie LJ, Mohr M, Krustrup P, Jackman SR, Ermιdis G, Kelly J, Black MI, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Jul;113(7):1673-84.
  8. Suzuki T, Morita M, Kobayashi Y, Kamimura A. Oral L-citrulline supplementation enhances cycling time trial performance in healthy well-trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12(Suppl 1):P52. Published 2015 Sep 21.
  9. Hall M, Trojian TH. Creatine supplementation. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013 Jul-Aug;12(4):240-4.
  10. Okudan N, Belviranli M, Pepe H, Gökbel H. The effects of beta alanine plus creatine administration on performance during repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise in sedentary men. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015 Nov;55(11):1322-8.
  11. Hoffman J, Ratamess N, Kang J, Mangine G, Faigenbaum A, Stout J. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Aug;16(4):430-46.
  12. Artioli GG, et al. Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jun;42(6):1162-73.
  13. Derave W, et al. beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Nov;103(5):1736-43.
  14. Trexler ET, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jul 15;12:30.
  15. Hobson RM, et al. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25-37.
  16. Stout JR, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):381-6.
  17. Kern BD, et al. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jul;25(7):1804-15.
  18. Walter AA, et al. Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1199-207.
  19. Smith AE, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009 Feb 11;6:5.
  20. Klebanov GI, et al. Effect of carnosine and its components on free-radical reactions. Membr Cell Biol. 1998;12(1):89-99.
  21. Kohen R, et al. Antioxidant activity of carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine present in muscle and brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 May;85(9):3175-9.
  22. Hipkiss AR. Glycation, ageing and carnosine: are carnivorous diets beneficial? Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 Oct;126(10):1034-9.
  23. Takahashi S, et al. Carnosine facilitates nitric oxide production in endothelial f-2 cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Nov;32(11):1836-9.
  24. Stellingwerff T, et al. Optimizing human in vivo dosing and delivery of β-alanine supplements for muscle carnosine synthesis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):57-65.
  25. Stout JR, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res. 2006 Nov;20(4):928-31.