The Best Krill Oil Supplements For Omega-3, Cholesterol, and More

More phospholipids, more benefits? See why krill oil is gaining popularity as a supplement that provides omega-3s.

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As krill oil gains popularity across the supplement space, you may be wondering why people choose to use it. Many gymgoers tend to think about whey proteinpre-workout, and even multivitamins as the main focus supplements. Cue krill oil. Krill oil has seen an increase in popularity as a means of ingesting more omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3s are ALA, EPA, and DHA, and they may be helpful for the development of the eyes and brain. (1) Krill oil is often compared to fish oil, but krill oil may be more absorbable due to its phospholipid content and may provide more antioxidants. (2)

One study suggests that krill oil may be helpful for boosting brain function, reducing inflammation, and increasing the bioavailability of other supps, making them more available for our bodies. (3) Although there are many studies that demonstrate krill oil’s potential benefits, it can still be confusing as to what you should look for in your supp. It’s vital to keep ingredients, dosage, sustainability, and price in mind when making a pick. These picks are geared toward a diverse audience and should be a great fit for those who need krill oil for heart health, lower cholesterol, or just a solid dose of omega-3s.

The Best Krill Oil Supplements

Editor’s note: The content on BarBend is meant to be informative in nature, but it should not be taken as medical advice. The opinions and articles on this site are not intended for use as diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment of health problems. It’s always a good idea to talk to your doctor before beginning a new fitness, nutritional, and/or supplement routine. Individual needs for vitamins and minerals will vary.

Best Krill Oil For Omega-3

This pick from Swolverine contains a whopping 500mg of omega-3’s EPA and DHA per serving, which tops many competitors’ products that average closer to 300mg per serving.

Swolverine Krill Oil 

This supplement is packed with a high dose of 500mg of omega-3’s. The ingredient list is short and includes 500mg of krill oil, which typically provides 100mg each of phospholipids, and EPA and DHA. Phospholipids are compound fats that make up cell membranes and may be responsible for protecting the cell from environmental factors.

DHA and EPA are fatty acids that are essential to obtain through diet. DHA may have a positive impact as a tool for combatting symptoms of inflammation, depression, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. (4) And EPA is suggested to potentially reduce the risk of nonfatal heart syndromes. (5)

The bottle states that the krill oil naturally includes fatty acids and astaxanthin, the latter of which is what makes many krill oil supplements appear red in hue. Omega-3s are important for your diet and may help those who suffer from cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and maternal depression. (3)

We love that this krill oil supp is a one-pill serving size, which is great for those who don’t love taking too many pills at once. We also appreciate the reasonable price of about $0.50 per serving. Swolverine included a vanilla flavor in its formula to take out the fishy taste and give its krill oil an appealing flavor for more enjoyable consumption. It’s good for pescatarians to note that this supp is made with gelatin capsules, so it may not be suitable for their lifestyle. There is also no mention of it being mercury-free on their site, which may be an important factor for some users.

Swolverine Krill Oil
Swolverine Krill Oil
Swolverine Krill Oil

Swolverine's Krill Oil delivers 500mg of krill oil, omega-3s in the form of EPA and DHA, and astaxanthin. This supp only requires one pill per serving and has the addition of Vanilla flavor to potentially combat a fishy aftertaste. 

Who Should Take Swolverine Krill Oil

  • Anyone looking to increase their omega-3 intake with a high 500mg dose.
  • Those who hate fishy flavors will appreciate the added vanilla flavoring in this formula. 
  • People on a budget who are looking for an affordable way to get their omega-3s in.

Who Shouldn’t Take Swolverine Krill Oil

  • Anyone who identifies as pescatarian may want to steer clear of these gelatin capsules. 
  • Those wanting an omega-3 supp that guarantees it’s mercury-free.
  • Folks who don’t like vanilla flavoring. 

Swolverine’s Krill Oil serves a solid 500mg dose of omega-3s at a super reasonable price point. If the high dose of omega-3s doesn’t sell you on it, the single pill serving and Vanilla flavoring should be able to seal the deal on this krill oil supp.

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Best Value Krill Oil

One major factor when it comes to picking the right krill oil supplement for your lineup will be the price point. With a high-quality product and an excellent price tag, this krill oil is a top choice, in our opinion. 

BulkSupplements Krill Oil

BulkSupplements Krill Oil contains 1,000mg of krill oil per each two soft gel serving. This supp also includes 300mg of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA derived from the krill oil, gelatin, glycerin, and water, making it a fairly straightforward supplement. The capsule is made from gelatin, so it may not be suitable for those who practice pescetarianism. The beauty of BulkSupplements is that they have a varied selection of bulk buys.

This krill oil supplement comes in 100, 300, and even 10,000 pill buying options. If you opt to max out and buy the 10,000 soft gels, you’ll be paying around $0.12 per serving, which is pretty much as low cost as krill oil comes.

Their krill oil is lab tested for purity and label accuracy, which is a somewhat underrepresented aspect across a lot of the krill oil market. They guarantee that their product is free from sugar, soy, dairy, yeast, gluten, corn, and additives — a nice reassurance for people who have specific dietary needs. Despite paying heed to getting tested for label accuracy, it lacks any certifications for sustainability like some of its competitors. That isn’t a deal-breaker for some, particularly those who value cost-efficiency more, but it is something to be aware of.

BulkSupplements Krill Oil
BulkSupplements Krill Oil
BulkSupplements Krill Oil

BulkSupplements sells their products, well, in bulk, meaning they offer a very cost effective krill oil option. Their product is lab tested for purity and potency. 

Who Should Take BulkSupplements Krill Oil

  • People who want certificates of analysis. BulkSupplements will provide them upon request to prove that each batch is tested for purity.
  • Customers who want to purchase up to 10,000 capsules at a time, which costs around $0.12 per serving and can (ultimately) save a considerable amount of money.
  • Those who want a supp that’s free from sugar, soy, dairy, yeast, gluten, corn, and additives. 

Who Shouldn’t Take BulkSupplements Krill Oil

  • Folks upset by a lack of certifications for sustainability from organizations like MSC or Friend of the Sea.
  • People who want specifics as to the origin or the krill used. BulkSupplements doesn’t reveal the country of origin for their krill, as it’s sourced from various places.
  • Anyone who follows a kosher, halal, or pescatarian diet.

When push comes to shove, it is going to be quite difficult to find a better bang for your buck when it comes to buying krill oil. The sheer volume available to purchase by BulkSupplements dwarfs their competitors. With that benefit does come tradeoffs, though. Sourcing krill from various sources means that there isn’t a specific origin to point to that will coincide with the batch you receive. The purity testing was enough to still earn a respectable rank on our list, and for anyone looking to buy in bulk, you found your match.

Best For Cholesterol

Cholesterol is necessary for our bodies to build cells, but too much LDL cholesterol can be a bad thing. Heightened LDL cholesterol can generate heart problems and clog your arteries, and krill oil may be an effective way to help manage it. (6) NOW supplements designed their krill oil with cardiovascular health in mind. 

NOW Supplements Neptune Krill

NOW takes the unusual avenue of using Neptune Krill Oil (NKO), which may contain more phospholipids than most of its competitors. Research has found that these fats may be significant with regard to managing cholesterol and more effective at reducing glucose and triglycerides when compared to fish oil. (6) However, it is best to talk to your doctor before beginning any new supplementation regimen, especially if you have an existing condition like high cholesterol.

The bottle of NOW’s krill oil specifically states that it is designed with cardiovascular health in mind. One study found the effectiveness of NKO for combatting high cholesterol to be statistically significant. The study found that supplementing with NKO could be effective at reducing overall cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels as well as increasing HDL levels. (6) In addition, this krill oil carries certifications from third-party tester UL and sustainability organization Friend of the Sea. This supp costs just around $0.50 per serving and each serving is two capsules. 

NOW Supplements Neptune Krill
NOW Supplements Neptune Krill
NOW Supplements Neptune Krill

A high phospholipid krill oil that carries rigorous certifications for both sustainability and potency. Each single-softgel serving provides one gram of krill oil and 250 milligrams of Omega-3.

Who Should Take NOW Supplements Neptune Krill

  • Anyone looking to prioritize phospholipid content in their supplement.
  • Those who specifically want to target lowering their bad cholesterol will like the additional benefit that an NKO source (like this one) may provide.
  • People who prefer certifications from Friend of the Sea and a third-party testing organization.

Who Shouldn’t Take NOW Supplements Neptune Krill

  • Folks who cannot consume bovine gelatin — they’re pork-free, but still may be off-limits for certain consumers.
  • Conservative spenders. Although this won’t break your bank, it is more expensive than some other options on our list.
  • Those who like a multitude of bulk buying options. This supp is only available in a 60-serving bottle.
  •  

Certified sustainable by Friend of the Sea and made with Neptune krill oil, this supp holds up against our other competitors. The potential to help maintain healthy cholesterol and the additional phospholipids make this a major contender for anyone seeking krill oil for heart health.

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Best Krill Oil For Phospholipid Delivery

Phospholipids are important as they may have a positive impact on lowering LDL cholesterol and triglycerides (bad cholesterols) and raising HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol), which may boost cardiovascular health. (7) This pick from Swolverine delivers 100mg of phospholipids per serving, which can be a great addition to your stack for potential heart health benefits.

Swolverine Krill Oil

Phospholipids have been utilized since the early 1900s to combat a variety of health concerns including cancer, heart disease, and inflammation of the body. (8) Krill oil supplements are especially high in phospholipids — krill are around 40 percent phospholipids compared to their marine counterparts, fish, which contain only one to one and a half percent. (9) This krill oil from Swolverine contains 500mg of krill oil and 100mg of phospholipids to potentially aid your body in reducing bad cholesterol and inflammation, and supporting overall heart health.

This pick only requires one soft gel per serving, which is great for those who like to take the lowest number of pills possible. It also sports a reasonable price point at around $0.50 per serving, which is right around average. This krill supp is made with bovine gelatin capsules, which is good to note for those who actively avoid gelatin intake. It’s also worth stating that Swolverine added a vanilla flavor to their krill oil to make it more enjoyable for the palate. 

Swolverine Krill Oil
Swolverine Krill Oil
Swolverine Krill Oil

Swolverine's Krill Oil delivers 500mg of krill oil, omega-3s in the form of EPA and DHA, and astaxanthin. This supp only requires one pill per serving and has the addition of Vanilla flavor to potentially combat a fishy aftertaste. 

Who Should Take Swolverine Krill Oil

  • Those who want a solid serving of phospholipids in their krill oil as this pick contains 100mg.
  • Folks who prefer smaller serving sizes for pills will appreciate that this is one soft gel per serving. 
  • Anyone who wants a healthy dose of krill oil that won’t break the bank. This pick delivers 500mg and costs about $0.50 per serving. 

Who Shouldn’t Take Swolverine Krill Oil

  • Anyone who can’t consume bovine products.
  • Those who don’t like vanilla flavor may want to choose a different krill supp.
  • If you’re on a super tight budget, you can find a bulk buy on our list that will cost even less than this. 

What’s nice about krill oil is that although it may seem as though products may appear to not differentiate from each other, there are some key measures that sellers use to stand out. Providing a high phospholipid count may draw consumers who are most interested in heart health management.

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Best Krill Oil For Pescatarians

Although many krill supplements seem like they would be acceptable for a pescatarian diet, many of the capsules contain gelatin. This pick is made from tilapia gelatin making it a suitable choice for those avoiding any land animal products. 

Viva Naturals Antarctic Krill Oil

With an unusually high dose of 330 milligrams of omega-3s per serving, Viva Naturals stands out for its potency and for its rigorous testing: it’s not only been third-party tested for label accuracy, but it also carries certifications from both Friend of the Sea and The International Krill Oil Standard (IKOS). IKOS tests for contaminants and stability, as well as for label accuracy.

This pick contains a whopping 1,250mg of krill oil per serving, which boasts 90mg of DHA and 165mg of EPA. They provide multiple buying options in the form of one bottle, four bottles, or six bottles, which provides the opportunity to save a decent chunk of change. If you opt for one bottle — which contains 30 servings — you’ll pay around $1.00 per serving. Whereas, if you choose to buy six bottles up front, the price drastically drops to around $0.60 per serving. 

Viva Naturals Antarctic Krill Oil
Viva Naturals Antarctic Krill Oil
Viva Naturals Antarctic Krill Oil

A particularly potent krill oil that carries multiple certifications for purity and sustainability. Pescetarian-friendly, each two-capsule serving provides 1,250 milligrams of krill oil.

Who Should Take Viva Naturals Antarctic Krill Oil

  • Anyone who would value their multiple certifications for purity and sustainability.
  • Pescatarians — the capsules are made with tilapia gelatin, so they contain no pork and/or beef.
  • Those who want to bulk buy their krill oil for a sweet price drop per serving. 

Who Shouldn’t Take Viva Naturals Antarctic Krill Oil

  • Anyone not prepared to buy into the pricier end of the krill oil market.
  • People who are not comfortable swallowing larger capsules.
  • Those who prefer a single pill serving as this requires two pills per serving.

Having a higher price tag and being larger in size versus comparable krill oil capsules are knocks against Viva Naturals. However, their certifications for sustainability and access are enough to slot them towards the top of our rankings — especially for our pescatarian friends.

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How We Decided Our Picks

Although it may be surprising to some, there is actually a lot of variety when analyzing the reasonable options on the market for krill oil. Different producers can aim their products at offering something specific that they feel the rest of the market is lacking. That is good news for consumers, but it also means there are more variables to take into account when trying to make the most beneficial purchase. Here is what we looked at when selecting our top choices:

Omega-3 Content

No secret here, if someone is looking to purchase krill oil, there is likely to want some supplementation to their omega-3 intake. When grading each product, one should consider what the intent of the manufacturer is — although all krill oil will have omega-3 content, it may not be the only focus — and how heavy of a dose is provided per serving.

Dosage

Dovetailing off of omega-3 content, understanding the dosage of anything else added to the formula is also something to be keenly aware of. For example, if a consumer is looking to increase their omega-6 intake alongside their omega-3 intake, there may be large discrepancies in dosage of omega-6 across products. This may be true for DHA and EPA, phospholipids, or astaxanthin dosages as well. 

Additionally, dosage helps signify the cost efficiency of a product. The higher the dose (assuming that’s desirable) paired with a higher amount of servings at a lower cost will obviously rank higher and have a larger impact on a consumer’s purchase.

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Third-Party Purity Testing and Sustainability

If there is a krill oil supplement on the market and it hasn’t been third party tested for purity and label accuracy, it is probably going to fall behind those that have — it certainly affects our ranking. Knowing that you are getting what you pay for is important, not only from a cost-efficiency standpoint but also so you know what you’re putting into your body.

Label accuracy is another thing that products can be third-party tested for and they should be. Unfortunately, not all products are. This is not to say that a supplement manufacturer would print inaccurate labels, it just offers peace of mind knowing that the dose of a particular ingredient listed on a label is the dose you are consuming.

When it comes to sustainability, this isn’t a requirement of every consumer so we can’t have it influence our rankings as heavily, but we do have to take it into consideration. Having sustainability certification or not doesn’t necessarily have a negative effect on the product itself, but having transparency around the production of something you will spend money on and consume can certainly be worth knowing.

What Is Krill Oil?

While most omega-3 supplements are derived from fatty fish like salmon, anchovies, and mackerel, krill are crustaceans that are usually sourced from Antarctica and the Southern Ocean.

Antarctic Krill
I. Noyan Yilmaz/Shutterstock

They’re tiny, about one or two centimeters long, and as a trophic level connection — meaning they’re at the bottom of the food chain — they’re enormous in number. It’s estimated there are 379 million tons of Antarctic krill swimming around the ocean, making this species the one with the largest total biomass.

Fish Oil vs. Krill Oil

So why consider krill oil instead of fish oil? Both are great sources of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, but there are a few reasons some folks prefer krill.

Krill oil contains more phospholipids, which may help the omega-3s to better absorb. (10)(11) It’s been shown in studies that while fish are one to one and a half percent phospholipids, krill are 40 percent phospholipids, making them far superior for those concerned with phospholipid intake. (9) Some research has found higher concentrations of EPA and DHA in participants taking krill oil versus fish oil, though more research is needed.(1)(12)(13)

Krill oil contains more antioxidants, like astaxanthin. In addition to potential benefits for heart health, astaxanthin acts as a natural preservative, so krill oil is less likely to go rancid on the shelf than fish oil. (14)

As they’re abundant in nature and reproduce quickly, there’s an argument that krill is a more eco-friendly option, although it’s important to look for certifications (see below) if sustainability is a priority. Because of their short lifespans, they’re less likely to be exposed to mercury and other toxic chemicals. It doesn’t produce “fishy burps” as fish oil does.

What To Consider Before Buying

When picking a krill oil supplement, you will want to consider a few varying factors to make sure you’re selecting a supp that best suits your needs. Price, dosage, type of krill, sustainability, third-party testing, and serving size are a few of the important factors you’ll want to weigh before your purchase.

Price

The price of krill oil supplements will definitely vary. Some of the major factors that will influence price will be ingredient lists, dosages, certifications, and sustainability practices. Generally speaking, the price of a supp will spike with the addition of more ingredients. It will also vary depending on dosage. If a supp has a much higher dose of krill oil or omega-3s compared to another pick, it will probably be more expensive. 

Similarly, any sustainability measures taken or third-party testing done on the supp will usually up the price of the product. These factors may not be important to some people, but for others, they may be uncompromisable components to picking a krill oil that’s best for them. It may be that you want to avoid mercury, support sustainable fishing practices, or want third-party testing done to ensure the effectiveness of your supp. Either way, these generally tend to up the price of a supplement.

While krill oil does have some interesting evidence suggesting its superiority to fish oil, it’s worth remembering that fish oil is considerably cheaper. Even if krill oil may absorb better, the cents-per-gram-of-omega-3s’ value is better with fish oil.

Dosage

Each of our picks packs distinctly different dosages for almost every ingredient. They have varying dosages for krill oil content, omega-3s, EPA, DHA, phospholipids, and astaxanthin. Some may skip on one or more of those ingredients entirely. It’s always best to think about what your needs are for krill oil — lowering cholesterol, joint health, brain function, etc. — and optimize dosages for these specific ingredients based on your goals.

Always be sure to read the label closely: The amount of krill oil is always more than the actual dose of omega-3 fatty acids. That isn’t really ever explicit in product labeling, so it is good to be conscious of it when making the most educated purchasing decision

Type of Krill

We provided options on this list that contain regular krill oil and Neptune krill oil (NKO). Although they are similar, it’s best to opt for NKO if your main focus is phospholipid intake. Although the choice of which type of krill oil you want to add to your stack may not make or break the benefits you reap, it’s good to be mindful if you have a certain goal in mind.

Sustainability Practices

It’s not a priority for everyone, but many krill oils stand out in the market with certifications from organizations that verify their practices with regard to environmental sustainability. The International Krill Oil Standard (IKOS), Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), and Friend of the Sea are all good options.

Third-Party Testing

This may not be important to some, but for others, third-party testing may be a major component of how you choose your krill oil supp. Label accuracy and purity can majorly affect the supplement’s integrity, which can be important for some folks. You may be vehemently against a krill oil supplement that contains mercury, or that isn’t tested for quality. Each person’s needs will be different, but it is worth thinking about whether these factors play into your needs. If a supplement has been third-party tested, we’ve called it out on this list. 

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Final Word

Supplementing with krill oil may provide some major benefits to anyone who is looking to boost their heart healthdecrease inflammation, or lower bad cholesterol. Krill is high in omega-3s and contains fatty acids DHA and EPA, which can be essential to brain function. Krill may be a more absorbable form of omega-3s and may be great to pair with other supplements as it may boost their bioavailability. (3) No matter what your reasoning is for adding krill oil to your lineup, it is packed with the potential to improve mental health, support healthy brain function, and improve heart health. 

Krill oil’s high content of fatty acids, easily absorbable phospholipids, and lesser fishy taste, make it a more enjoyable way (than fish oil) to consistently intake omega-3s as part of a well-balanced diet — for some. Although it’s just gaining momentum in popularity — especially compared to omega-3 supps or tried and true fish oil — the research is compelling. As always, make sure you speak to a doctor before making any changes to your diet and supplement regimen.

FAQs

Is krill oil necessary for me to take?

Although krill oil isn’t necessary to take, it may be helpful for a host of reasons. Some of the conditions it may benefit are inflammation, heart conditions, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and depression. (4) It is extremely important to consult with your healthcare provider before self-prescribing or replacing existing medication with krill oil.

Why should I take krill oil instead of fish oil?

Krill oil has its own set of unique benefits that may make it a better choice for you over fish oil or omega-3 supplements. Krill oil has a higher count of phospholipids, which may be beneficial to those who suffer from high cholesterol or need to lower LDL and triglycerides. (6) Krill oil also tends to have less of a fishy taste than fish oil, so if that’s something that is holding you back from taking an omega-3 supplement, krill oil may be a great option to replace fish oil.

Is taking krill oil bad for the oceans?

If sustainability is something that you’re passionate about, there are ways to supplement with krill oil that are ocean-safe. You’ll want to choose a krill oil supplement that has been certified by either the International Krill Oil Standard (IKOS), Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), or Friend of the Sea. This will allow you to get your daily dose of krill oil without compromising your personal set of ethics.

References

  1. Köhler A, Sarkkinen E, Tapola N, Niskanen T, Bruheim I. Bioavailability of fatty acids from krill oil, krill meal and fish oil in healthy subjects–a randomized, single-dose, cross-over trial. Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Mar 15;14:19. doi: 10.1186/s12944-015-0015-4. PMID: 25884846; PMCID: PMC4374210.
  2. Andraka JM, Sharma N, Marchalant Y. Can krill oil be of use for counteracting neuroinflammatory processes induced by high fat diet and aging? Neurosci Res. 2020 Aug;157:1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2019.08.001. Epub 2019 Aug 22. PMID: 31445058.
  3. Krupa K, Fritz K, Parmar M. Omega-3 Fatty Acids. [Updated 2022 Jul 12]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK564314/
  4. Cardoso C, Afonso C, Bandarra NM. Dietary DHA and health: cognitive function ageing. Nutr Res Rev. 2016 Dec;29(2):281-294. doi: 10.1017/S0954422416000184. Epub 2016 Nov 21. PMID: 27866493.
  5. Mozaffarian D, Wu JH. (n-3) fatty acids and cardiovascular health: are effects of EPA and DHA shared or complementary? J Nutr. 2012 Mar;142(3):614S-625S. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.149633. Epub 2012 Jan 25. PMID: 22279134; PMCID: PMC3278271.
  6. Bunea R, El Farrah K, Deutsch L. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Dec;9(4):420-8. PMID: 15656713.
  7. Hals PA, Wang X, Xiao YF. Effects of a purified krill oil phospholipid rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk factors in non-human primates with naturally occurring diabetes type-2 and dyslipidemia. Lipids Health Dis. 2017 Jan 17;16(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s12944-017-0411-z. PMID: 28095913; PMCID: PMC5240272
  8. Küllenberg D, Taylor LA, Schneider M, Massing U. Health effects of dietary phospholipids. Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Jan 5;11:3. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-3. PMID: 22221489; PMCID: PMC3316137.
  9. Kubala, J. (2020, August 25). Omega-3s and phospholipids: How are they linked? Healthline. Retrieved September 27, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/nutrition/the-phospholipids-and-omega-3-connection 
  10. Schuchardt JP, Schneider I, Meyer H, Neubronner J, von Schacky C, Hahn A. Incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma phospholipids in response to different omega-3 fatty acid formulations–a comparative bioavailability study of fish oil vs. krill oil. Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Aug 22;10:145. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-145. PMID: 21854650; PMCID: PMC3168413.
  11. Maki KC, Reeves MS, Farmer M, Griinari M, Berge K, Vik H, Hubacher R, Rains TM. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women. Nutr Res. 2009 Sep;29(9):609-15. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2009.09.004. PMID: 19854375.
  12. Ulven SM, Kirkhus B, Lamglait A, Basu S, Elind E, Haider T, Berge K, Vik H, Pedersen JI. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids. 2011 Jan;46(1):37-46. doi: 10.1007/s11745-010-3490-4. Epub 2010 Nov 2. PMID: 21042875; PMCID: PMC3024511.
  13. Ulven SM, Holven KB. Comparison of bioavailability of krill oil versus fish oil and health effect. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2015 Aug 28;11:511-24. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S85165. PMID: 26357480; PMCID: PMC4559234.
  14. Pashkow FJ, Watumull DG, Campbell CL. Astaxanthin: a novel potential treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2008 May 22;101(10A):58D-68D. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.010. PMID: 18474276.